Agriculture
Crop Production :: Pulses :: Soybean

 

SOYBEAN ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.)
  arrow Directorate of Soybean Research, Indore new

Soybean

CROP IMPROVEMENT

SEASON AND VARIETIES

Adipattam (June - July) 
Purattasipattam 
(Sep. - Oct.) 
Masipattam 
(February - March)
Co 1 (Irrigated), Co 2, Co(Soy) 3
Rice fallows Co 1, Co 2*
* Under protected irrigation.

 DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIETY

Variety Co 1 Co 2 Co (Soy) 3
Parentage Re-selection from a Thailand variety Cross derivative of UGM 21 x JS 335 Cross derivative of UGM 69 x JS 335
Year of release 1980 1995 2005
50% flowering 37 days 30-40 days 39 – 41 days
Duration (days) 90-100 80-90 90-100
Grain yield (Kg/ha)
Rainfed 1080 1340 -
Irrigated 1640 1650 1700
Height (cm) 58 30 - 40 53.5
Branches 6 - 5 - 6
Flower colour Pink Pink to purple Pink
Colour of grain Cream Creamy yellow Creamy yellow with brown hilum
100 seed weight (g) 12.5 13 - 14 10.95 – 11.75

 

MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATIONS

1. FIELD PREPARATION

      Prepare the land to get fine tilth and form beds and channels.

SEED RATE
      CO 1 - 80 kg/ha. Optimum plant population 6,66,000/ha. 
      CO 2 (irrigated) Pure crop : 60-70 Kg/ha; Inter crop : 25 Kg/ha 
                CO(Soy) 3 Pure crop : 50 Kg/ha

2. SEED TREATMENT WITH FUNGICIDES

a)

Treat the seeds with Carbendezim or  Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing or with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed.

  • Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers.
  • First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium.
  • Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.

b)

Coat the seeds with ZnSO4 @ 300 mg/kg using 10% maida solution as adhesive (250 ml/ kg) or gruel and arappu leaf powder (250 g/kg) as carrier to increase the field stand.

3. SEED TREATMENT WITH  BIOFERTILIZER

a)

Treat the seeds atleast 24 hours before sowing.

 

Treat the seeds with 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Rhizobial culture (COS-1) and 3 packets (600 g/ha)  of Phosphobacteria developed at TNAU using rice kanji as binder. If the seed treatment is not carried out apply 10 packets of Rhizobium (2000 g/ha)  and 10 packets (2000 g)  of Phosphobacteria with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.  Dry the bacterial culture treated seeds in shade for 15 minutes before sowing.

4. FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  • Apply 20 kg N and 80 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha 40 kg of S as gypsum (220 kg/ha) /  ha as basal dressing. Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition      
  • Foliar spray of NAA 40 mg/litre and Salicylic acid 100 mg/litre once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter 
  • Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/litre or urea 20 g/litre once at flowering and another at 15 days thereafter.
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Apply 20 kg N and 80 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2O per ha 40 kg of S as gypsum (220 kg/ha) / ha as basal dressing

5. SOWING

Dibble the seeds at a depth of 2 - 3 cm adopting a spacing of 30 x 5 cm. In Erode district, Soybean + Castor (60 cm apart) cropping system gives high net return.

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6. WATER MANAGEMENT

Irrigate immediately after sowing. Give life irrigation on the 3rd day. Further irrigations at intervals of 7 - 10 and 10 - 15 days during summer and winter season respectively may be given depending on soil and weather conditions. Soybean is very sensitive to excess moisture and the crop is affected,  if water stagnates in the fields. The crop should not suffer due to water stress from flowering to maturity. To alleviate moisture stress spray of either Kaolin 3% or liquid paraffin at 1% on the foliage. In Erode district Soybean + castor with irrigation at 0.60 IW/CPE ratio (i.e.) once in 10 to 12 days is recommended to realise maximum benefits.

7. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Alachlor may be applied to the irrigated crop at 4 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 3.3 litre ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
  • If herbicide spray is not given two hand weedings on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
  • Imazythypur @ boqaitha may be applied as post emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.

8 HARVESTING

Yellowing of leaves and shedding, indicate the maturity of the crop. Cut the entire plant when most of the pods have turned yellow, drying and processing.

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RAINFED SOYABEAN

  • VARIETIES : CO 1, ADT 1
  • SEASON : The crop can be grown in South-West and North-East monsoon seasons. The middle of July is the optimum time of sowing for rainfed Soyabean in North Western Zone.

3. SEED TREATMENT WITH THE FUNGICIDES AND BIOFERTILIZERS 

  • Treat the seeds with Carbendezim or Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing or  with talc formulation ofTrichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed or Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed.
    • Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers.
    • First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium.
    • Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
  • Treat the seeds required for ha. with three pockets of Rhizobium  and 3 packets of Phosphobacteria

4.FERTILIZER APPLICATION

  • Apply NPK as per soil test recommendation as far as possible. If soil test recommendation is not available adopt blanket recommendation of 20:40:20:20 NPKS kg/ha,  if adequate moisture is available. 
  • Apply entire dose of N, P ,K and S as basal.

5. SPACING

      Adopt a spacing of 30 cm between rows and 5 cm between plants in the row.

6. SOWING

      Dibble or drill the seeds.

7. WEED MANAGEMENT

  • Alachlor may be applied to the irrigated crop at 4 litres/ha or Pendimethalin 3.3 litre ai/ha after sowing followed by one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.
  • If herbicide spray is not given two hand weedings on 20 and 35 days after sowing may be given
  • Imazythypur @ boqaitha may be applied as post emergence on 20 DAS with one hand weeding on 30 days after sowing.

SOYABEAN IN RICE FALLOWS

     Soyabean can be sown in rice fallows from middle of January to middle of March. Seeds can be dibbled at 75 kg/ha.

SPECIAL SITUATIONS

  • Optimum time of sowing Soyabean CO 1 - 2nd fortnight of June in Kharif
  • Intercropping of Soyabean CO 2 in Sugarcane is recommended for North Western Zone.
  • Intercropping of Soyabean in coconut gardens of more than 10 years is recommended.
  • Vermipelleting (50 g/kg) and adopting spacing of 30 x 10 cm and two foliar sprays of 2% DAP during flowering is recommended to achieve higher yield.

Crop Protection

Post Harvest Technology

 

Updated on : March 2014