TNAU Agritech Portal
Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | Farmers' Innovation | Publications | Contact

Crop Protection :: Pests of Mango
 

Borers
Mango stem borerBatocera rufomaculata 

Symptoms of damage
  • Grub tunnels in the sapwood on the trunk or branches
  • Grub bore into the sap wood and macking irregular tunnels.
  • Feeding the vascular tissues
  • interruption of nutrient and water transport on the tissue
  • Drying of terminal shoot in early stage
  • Frass comes out from several points and some times sap oozes out of the holes
  • Wilting of branches or entire tree

Identification of pest
  • Grub - Linear, fleshy, apodous
  • Adult - Grayish beetle with two pink dots and lateral spine    
http://www.zin.ru/Animalia/Coleoptera/images/foto/I_Zaitsev_Batocera.jpg

Management
  • Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree
  • Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts
  • Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.
  • Swab Coal tar + Kerosene @ 1:2 or Carbaryl 50 WP 20 g / l (basal portion of the trunk - 3 feet height) after scraping the loose bark to prevent oviposition by adult beetles.
  • Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.
  • If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.
  • Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

Bark borerIndarbela tetraonis 

Symptoms of damage
  • Young trees may succumb to the attack.
  • Caterpillars bore into the trunk or junction of branches
  • Caterpillars remain hidden in the tunnel during day time and come out at night, feed on the bark.
  • Presence of gallery made out of silk and frass

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Stout and dirty brown in colour
  • Adult
  • Stout yellowish –brown moth with brown wavy markings on the forewings
  • Hind wings is white colour.
  • Males are smaller than the females. 

Management
  • Remove and destroy dead and severely affected branches of the tree
  • Remove alternate host, silk cotton and other hosts
  • Grow tolerant mango varieties viz., Neelam, Humayudin.
  • Padding with monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 ml in 2.5 cm /tree soaked in absorbent cotton.
  • If infestations are severe then apply the copper oxychloride paste on the trunk of the tree.
  • Hook out the grub from the bore hole - apply monocrotophos 36 WSC 10 to 20 ml/ hole
  • One celphos tablet (3 g aluminum phosphide) per hole
  • Apply carbofuran 3G 5 g per hole and plug with mud.

Shoot borerClumetia transversa 

Symptoms of damage
  • Terminal shoots show tunnel from top to down wards.
  • Stunting of seedlings with terminal bunchy appearance.     

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Caterpillar is dark pink with dark brown prothroacic shield.
  • Adult - Adult is greyish moth with grey wings having wavy lines.

Management
  • Field sanitation
  • Collect and destroy the infested plant parts
  • Summer ploughing to expose the pupae
  • Spray carbaryl 50WP 0.1%.

INFLORESCENCE AND FRUIT FEEDERS

Mango hoppers,   Idioscopus niveoparsus,I. clypealis, Amirtodus atkinsoni

Symptoms of damage
  • Nymphs and adults suck the sap of inflorescence
  • Withering
  • Shedding of flower buds and flowers
  • Presence of honey dew secrecation on lower leaves and development of sooty mould.
  • Clicking sound - movement of jassids amidst leaves.
  • Hoppers provide shelter in the cracks and crevices of the barks on the tree  

Identification of pest
  • Nymph - Nymphs pale yellow, very active and hide in lower shoots or in cracks in the barks.
  • The insect appears in February when mango trees come to flowering.
  • Adult
    • a. Idioscopus niveoparsus; Adults: dark with wavy lines on wings and three spots on scutellum.
    • b. I. clypealis; Adults: small, light brown with dark spots on the vertex and two spots on scutellum.
    • c. Amirtodus atkinsoni; Adults: large, light brown with two spots on scutellum.

Management
  • Avoid close planting, as the incidence very severe in overcrowded orchards.
  • Orchards must be kept clean by ploughing and removal of weeds.
  • Spray two rounds of acephate 75 SP@ 1g/lit or phosalone 35 EC@ 1.5 ml/li

OR

  • First spray at the time of panicle emergence , second spray two weeks after first spray.
  • Wettable sulphur @ 2 g/lit may be sprayed after spraying carbaryl to avoid mite resurgence.
  • The mixture toxaphene with sulphur (1:1) have been reported to be effective against pest.  
  • Neem oil 5 ml/lit of water can be mixed with any insecticides
  • Spray 3 per cent neem oil or neem seed kernel powder extract 5 per cent

Inflorescence midge 

Symptoms of damage
  • Maggots attack the inflorescence stalk, flowers and small developing fruits
  • Maggot bore into the bud and feeds on inner content
  • Buds fail to open and drop down

Identification of pest
  • Larva - A maggot light yellowish colour and moults three times.
  • Adult i) a Dasineura amaramanjarae: Orange red
    ii) b. Erosomyia indica: Yellowish fly
    iii) c. Procystiphora mangiferae: Light orange fly

Management
  • Remove and destroy affected flowers and tender shoots
  • Spray dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.06%, methyl demeton 25 EC @0.05%

Aphid, Toxoptera odinae 

Symptoms of damage
  • Reddish brown aphids suck the sap from leaves, petiole and fruits
  • Shedding of flowers.

Management
  • Collect and destroy the damaged plant parts along with nymphs and adults
  • Dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC 1 ml/l
  • Release coccinelid predators

Flower webber, Eublemma versicolor 

Symptoms of damage
  • Webbing of flowers and bore holes in inflorescence stalk

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Greenish yellow with light brown head.
  • Adult - Moth has purplish pink or light orange wings.

Management
  • Spray phosalone 35 EC 2ml/lit for effective control

Loopers, Thalassodes quadraria, Chloroclystis sp 

Symptoms of damage
  • Webbed inflorescence and subsequent drying of inflorescence.

Identification of pest

a. Thalassodes quadraria:

  • Grey greenish looper.
  • Adult: green with angular wings

b. Chloroclystis sp:

  • Brownish looper .
  • Adult: Greyish moth with wavy lines

Management
  • Collect and destroy the damaged leaves
  • Use light trap 1/ha to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray malathion 50 EC 2ml/lit

Bud miteAceria mangiferae 

Symptoms of damage
  • Malformed leaves
  • Buds giving bunchy top appearance
  • Leading to bud necrosis. Normally occurs during summer.

Management
  • Dicofol 18.5 EC 2.5ml/lit or wettable sulphur 50WP 2 g /lit

Fruit flyBactrocera (Dacus) dorsalis

Symptoms of damage
  • Maggot bore into semi-ripen fruits with decayed spots and dropping of fruits.
  • Oozing of fluid
  • Brownish rotten patches on fruits.
Maggots of fruit fly dropping out of mango fruit Mango fruit fly

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Yellowish apodous maggots.
  • Adult - Light brown with transparent wing

 

Maggot  Adult

Management
  • Collect fallen infested fruits and dispose them by dumping in a pit
  • Provide summer ploughing to expose the pupa
  • Monitor the activity of flies with methyl eugenol sex lure traps.
  • Bait spray - combing any one of the insecticides and molasses or jaggery 10 g/l,
    • fenthion 100EC 1ml/l,
    • malathion 50EC 2 ml/l,
    • dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/l,
    • carbaryl 50 WP 4 g/l. two rounds at 2 weeks interval before ripening of fruits.
    Biological control
    • Field release of natural enemies Opius compensates and Spalangia philippines

Mango nut weevilSternochaetus mangiferae

Symtom
Grub
Grub on mango
Adult on Mango

Symptoms of damage
  • Grub makes zigzag tunnels in pulp
  • Eats unripe tissue and bore into cotyledons
  • Fruit dropping at marble stage
  • oviposition injuries on marble sized fruits.
  • Tunnelled cotyledons in mature fruit by grubs.

Identification of pest
  • Grub - A full grown grub is legless, fleshly and yellow with dark head.
  • Dark weevils after emergence remain inactive, hidden in the cracks and crevices on the trunk
  • Adult - Adult is dark brown with a short snout.

Management
  • Collect and destroy the fallen fruits
  • Spray application of fenthion 100EC 1ml/l; (first at marble stage of the fruit second at 15 days interval).
  • During non flowering season direct spray towards the base of the trunk           

LEAF FEEDERS
Shoot webber: Orthaga exvinacea

Symptoms of damage
  • Caterpillar webbing of terminal leaves and scrapes the chlorophyll content
  • Drying up plants.
Tip dry  Inflorescence entangled Nest of dried leaves

Identification of pest
  • Larva - Pale greenish with brown head and prothroacic shield.
  • Adult - Brown moth with wavy lines on fore wings.

Management
  • Remove and destroy the webbed leaves along with larva and pupa
  • Spray carbaryl at 50 WP @ 0.1%          
  • Encourage the activity of predators, carabid beetle Parena lacticincta, reduvid Oecama sp

Leaf gall midges

Symptoms of damage
  • Presence of galls on leaves.

Identification of pest
  • Maggots – are yellowish
  • Adult - Tiny mosquito like.

Management
  • Spray dimethoate 30 EC or methyldemeton 25 EC @ 2ml/lit.

Leaf twisting weevilApoderus tranquebaricus 

Symptoms of damage
  • Twisting, rolling and drying of terminal leaves.

Identification of pest
  • Grub: yellowish
  • Adult: Reddish brown weevil with long snout

Management
  • Spray monocrotophos 36WSC 1.5 ml.

Hairy caterpillars,   Euproctis fraterna   , Prothesia scintillans   

Symptoms of damage
  • Defoliation.

Identification of pest
  • Euproctis fraterna
    • Larva - yellowish with brown head, yellowish stripe with central red line
    • black hairs dorsally on first three segments
    • Adult - yellowish moth with black spots.
Prothesia scintillans
  • Larva - Reddish with red head surrounded by whitish hairs
  •  Adult - yellowish moth with transverse line on the fore wings.

Management
  • Collect and destroy egg masses and caterpillars
  • Use burning torch to kill the congregating larvae
  • Use light trap to attract and kill the adults
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC or quinalphos 25 EC 2ml/lit

Scales

Symptoms of damage
  • Both nymphs and adults desap the leaves cause yellowing.

Identification of pest
  • Adult - White, elongate, hard scale

Management
  • Pruning of infested branches and burning
  • Dimethoate or phosphomidon are effective

Gaint mealybugDrosicha mangiferae

Symptoms of damage
  • Drying of leaves and inflorescence
  • Presence of pinkish nymphs and adult mealy bugs on fruit and fruit stalk.

Identification of pest
  • Pinkish nymph

Management
  • Remove weeds like Clerodendrum inflortunatum and grasses by ploughing during June-July.
  • Band the trees with 20 cm wide alkalthene of polythene (400 gauge) in the middle of December

(50 cm above the ground level and just below the junction of branching).

  • Stem with jute thread and apply a little mud of fruit tree grease on the lower edge of the band.
  • If necessary apply methyl parathion1ml/lit, chlopyriphos 20EC 2.5 ml/l
  • Release of Australian ladybird beetle, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri @ 10/tree

Red antOecophylla smaradina

Symptoms of damage
  • Webbed of leaves with ants forming nests.

Identification of pest
  • Reddish ant, queen – olive green in colour

Management
  • Nests should be removed and destroyed mechanically or by spraying any of the contact insecticides
  • Monocrotophos 2ml/lit or DDPV 100EC 1ml/lit 


Top


Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association | Publications | Contact Us

© 2015 TNAU. All Rights Reserved.