Fisheries :: Export
India’s exports of marine products had their beginning as early as 1938-39. May be a startling revelation but nevertheless true. This historic year was recorded in gold in the Annual Statement of the Sea-borne trade of British India with British Empire and foreign countries. The exports included dried, salted or smoked fish, aquatic animal oils, fish meal and fertilizers and miscellaneous aquatic animals and plant products. Most of the dried fish to be exported to east Asian countries such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Myanmar (Burma) and Sri lanka as a result of these steps. In this year, 21,874 t valued at Rs. 73,16 lakhs were exported. By 1945-46, the exports of the same complexion reached a level of 32,283 t valued at Rs. 269 lakhs. By 1959, Sri Lanka (Then Ceylon) remained to be the only country for the export of Indian dried fish. During that year the exports were 25,932 t valued at Rs. 4.43 crores, but declined later to 4703 t valued at Rs. 67 lakhs. Trading pattern of this kind, however, dwindled down over years.
So far as dried prawns (shrimps in present day parlance) are concerned, India exported to 22 countries 3067 t of them valued at Rs. 89.43 lakhs in 1962 and 2808 t valued at Rs. 93.24 lakhs in 1963. Over half of these exports went to (Burma) present Myanmar. By 1967, these exports, came down to 1540 t valued at Rs. 89.61 lakhs. Later, in 1968, the exports plummeted further to 1410 t valued at Rs. 72.58 lakhs. The export of this commodity came down to 139 t by 1972 from 684 t in 1971. After 1972 exports of dried fish and prawn products from India dwindled.
With an annual production of over one million tons of fish, India is one among the eight major fish-producing countries of the world. The National income from fisheries is estimated at about Rs. 600 crores per annum.
The Sea Fisheries resources consists of a large variety of fishes such as. Sardiences, Mackerel and Prawns. Several other favorite varieties like Pomfrets, Seer fish, Indian salmon, etc., are also available in large quantities. Fishing is generally confined to the narrow coastal belt of about 6 to 10 miles from the coast and the production is in the hands of nearly a million fishermen. The Coastal fisheries are largely seasonal Surplus productions are obtained in some months and scarcity in other months. Large-scale expansion of the fishing industry depends up on increased off-shore fishing activity which is being fostered by mechanizing the indigenous crafts, by introducing small-powered crafts and by employing large modern vessels. The west coast of India at present accounts for over three-fourths of our total sea fish production. With the gradual development of the marine fishing industry, the export industry was making a turning point on modern scientific lines. To ensure a high quality of marine products exports, the Government of India has bought in quality control and preshipment inspection for marine products on a volunturing basis. A marine product Inspection council was set up inn1964 to advise the Government on the measures to be taken for implementing compulsory quality control of various marine products.
Export promotion measures
Supply of Tin Plate against Export of Tinned Fish:
The Ministry of Commerce and Industry in the Government of India have introduced a scheme for supply of tin plate against export of tinned fish. According to the scheme, the Deputy Chief Controller of Imports and Exports, Ernakulam (Cochin), will register persons who are engaged in canning fish and wish to take advantage of the scheme, provided they have been dealing in the export of fish or sale of fish in the international market for at least on year. Those who do not fulfil the above condition will have to be recommended for registration by the Fisheries Development Adviser, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, New Delhi.
Supply of other requisites for canning fish:
There are some items in which the internal relationship between imports and exports is direct and intimate. The ability to export some of these manufactured goods depends largely on the facility with which the exporter or the manufacturer can procure the basic raw materials required in the manufacture. With a view to promoting the export of such goods, a scheme has been devised for the grant of special import licences to replace imported raw material content of the exported product, or to provide an inducement for larger exports.
The foundation for the exports of frozen marine products, which is a revolutionary milestone in the history of marine products exports of India. the present status of the marine products exports of India is a tribute to his vision and the pioneering start he gave to the marine products export sector. On this foundation he laid, an infrastructure.
Features of Exports
Frozen shrimp, considered to be one of the major item in our export which, contribute 71% of total marine products exports in 1999-2000 by value. The share of frozen shrimp in the total exports, however, declined from 33.83% to 33.31% in terms of volume compared to last year. At the same time, the export of frozen shrimp as such increased by 7.21% in terms of volume and 8.67% in terms of value. The unit value realization of shrimp has increased by 7.21%in terms of volume and 8.67% in terms of value. The unit value realization of shrimp has increased marginally from Rs. 326.38 (US$ 7.82) to Rs. 330.85 (US$ 7.69). Though India could retain her position as the major supplier of shrimp to Japanese market during the year, the shrimp exports of India to Japan declined by 1.37% by volume and 2.39% by value. Shrimp exports to the member countries of European union, the second largest market, increased considerably during the year. The increase considerably during the year. The increase in volume was 3807 mt with a value of Rs. 155.66 crores, showing an increase of 21.29% in volume and 42.20% in value. Exports to the USA, the third largest market for Indian Shrimp, has shown an increase both in terms of quantity and value unlike the previous year. The total quantity of shrimp exported to USA was 21.391 mt fetching a value of Rs. 633.73 crores which was respectively 18.54% and 35.68% more in volume and value than the previous year. The export of shrimp to South East Asian market and other markets also increased both in volume and value during the year when compared to the previous year. The unit value realization of shrimp increased form Rs. 326.38 to Rs. 330.85 in rupee terms during 1999- 2000. However, in US $ 7.81 to US$ 7.70. This was mainly because of the weakening of Indian Rupee against US dollar. The average unit value Indian shrimp fetched in Japanese market had declined from US$ 9.67 to US$ 9.30 during the year. The fall in prices was due to Japanese currency fluctuations and the sale of smaller sized shrimp at lower rates on account of distress harvest to prevent disease.
Frozen fish continued to be the largest item in our export contributing a share of 38% in terms of volume while in value terms it is the second largest item contributing 10.45% of Indian marine products export earnings. As in the previous years, Ribbon fish contributed the major share (30%) among fin-fish varieties, followed by Promfret (24.53%) Croaker (8.55%), Mackerel (7.75%), Seer fish (5.73%) and the rest of other fishes. The value-added products made out of finfish varieties were fish fillets, fish loins/steaks and shark meat which contributed 3.80% of the total finfish export, the share of which has shown an increasing trend over the previous year. The value of this item grew from Rs. 8.85 crores to Rs. 20.22 crores during the year. China is the largest importer of frozen fish which accounted for about 46% in terms of value and 57.69% in terms of quantity in the overall export of frozen fish.
European Union was the major importer of the cephalopods, accounting for about 53% of the total export from India in terms of value. Spain alone contributed to 2.5% (value wise) of the total export of frozen cephalopods. The landings of squid and cuttle-fish in major maritime states were not however promising. Overall export of Cephalopods (Squid, Cuttlefish and Octopus) increased by 2921 mt valued Rs. 49.36 crores, registering a growth of 4.22% by volume and 8.90% by value. Export of Cuttlefish declined by 6% while export Squid increased by 7.4% in terms of volume. Export of frozen Octopus increased both in terms of quantity and value considerably during the year registering a growth of 105.81% by volume and 116.58% by value.
The main markets for our seafood products are Japan, member countries of European Union, USA, South East Asia and Middle East countries. Among the markets, Japan continued to be number one market sharing 19.6% in terms of volume and 44% in terms of value (Rs. 2263.6)
The share of the different markets in India’s total exports are as follows: Japan accounted for 44% in terms of value, USA accounted for 15% in terms of value, European Union accounted for 18% in terms of value, South East Asia accounted for 18% in terms of value, Middle East accounted for 2% in terms of value, and others accounted for3% in terms of value.
i) E U registered a growth of 20.37% in terms of volume and 32.15% in rupee realization and 28.37% in terms of US $,
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