Scientific name: Shorea robusta
Origin: Sal is indigenous to India and occurs in two main regions separated by Gangetic plain namely the northern and central Indian regions.
Climate: Sal survives upto a maximum temperature of 36°C to 44°C and minimum temperature of 11°C to 17°C and it needs an average rainfall of 1000 mm to 3500 mm per annum.
Soil: Occurs both in hilly regions and grows best on lower slopes and valleys with deep, moist and fertile soil. Avoids swampy tracts with poor drainage. Most favourable soil is well drained moist deep sandy loam with good subsoil drainage.
Silvicultural characters: Although Sal is able to persist under moderate shade but it is a light demander, young plants require protection from frost and drought. Coppices well upto a moderate size. One of the most fire resistant species of its region.
Plant Protection: Injury by animals occurs in younger stages. Pigs and Porcupine uproot young plants. Coppice shoots browsed by dear and cattle.
Parasitic plant: Loranthus causes much damage.
Fungi: Polyporus shoreae, Fomes carpophylli, Sylarya polymorpha
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