CLIMATE AND SOIL
Rice is a crop of tropical climate. However, it is also grown successfully in humid to  sub-humid regions under subtropical and temperate climate. Rice is cultivated in almost all types of soils with varying productivity. Under high temperature, high humidity with sufficient rainfall and irrigation facilities, rice can be grown in any type of soil. The major soil groups where rice is grown are riverine alluvium, red-yellow, red loamy, hill and sub-montane, Terai, laterite, costal alluvium, red sandy, mixed red and black and medium and shallow black soils.

 

RICE SEASONS OF TAMIL NADU

Month of
sowing

Season

Duration
(Days)

Districts

Dec - Jan

Navarai

< 120

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore,
Villupuram, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur,
Nagapattinam, Madurai, Theni, Salem, Namakkal,
Dindigul, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore,Erode and
Pudukkottai.

Apr - May

Sornavari

<120

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Cuddalore,
Villupuram, Namakkal, Dharmapuri

Apr – May
May - June

Early Kar
Kar

<120

Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi, Erode,
Coimbatore, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Salem,
Namakkal, Dharmapuri.

June - July

Kuruvai

<120

Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur, Thanjavur,
Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Pudukottai, Erode

July - Aug.

Early Samba

130 to 135

Tiruvallur, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Salem, Namakkal, Cuddalore, Villupuram, Madurai, Theni,
Ramanathapuram, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Erode, Pudukkottai, The Nilgiris

August

Samba

130 – 135
and >150

All districts

Sep - Oct

Late Samba
Thaladi/Pishanam

130 - 135

Tiruvallur, Madurai, Theni, Coimbatore, Erode

Sep -Oct

Late Pishanam

130 - 135

Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Kanyakumari
Tirunelveli , Thoothukudi

Oct - Nov

Late Thaladi

115 -120

Thanjavur, Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur, Tiruchirapalli, Perambalur, Karur

 

District/Season

Month

Varieties

1.Kanchipuram/Tiruvallur

Sornavari

April -May

ADT 36, IR 36, IR 50, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 17, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT43, CO 47, TRY (R)2*, ADT (R) 45, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

August

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, ADT 40, PY 4, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19, ADT(R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba

September - October

IR 20, White Ponni, ADT 39, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R)46, CORH 2

Navarai

(Dec -Jan)

ADT 36, ADT 37, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, ADT 43
MDU 5, ASD 20

Dry

July - Aug

PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM 11, PMK (R) 3, TKM (R) 12

Semi-dry

July - Aug

IR 20, TKM 10, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM 11, TKM (R) 12,PMK (R)3

2.Vellore/Tiruvannamalai

Sornavari

April-May

IR 64, ADT 36, IR 50, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18,
ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45,
ADT RH1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

Ponmani, ADT 40, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43,
Paiyur 1, PY 4, CO 45, TRY 1, ASD 19, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec -Jan

ADT 36, IR 20, ADT 39, CO 43, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18,
ADT 42, MDU 5, CO 47, ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

3. Cuddalore/ Villupuram

Sornavari

April -May

ADT 36, IR 50, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,ASD20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1,ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, PY 4, ADT 38, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec-Jan

ADT 36, IR 20, IR 36, IR 64, ADT 39, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT
42, MDU 5, ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

District/Season

Month

Varieties

4. Tiruchirappalli/Karur/Perambalur

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ADT 37, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45 (except Karur),
TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, ADT 40, Ponmani, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44

Late Samba / Thaladi

Sep -Oct

IR20, WhitePonni, ADT39, CO43, TRY1, ASD19, ADT(R)46,

Navarai

Dec -Jan

ADT36,IR 64,ASD16,ASD 18,ADT 42,MDU 5,ASD 20,TRY (R)2*

5. Thanjavur/Nagapattinam/Tiruvarur

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R)
47, ,ADT (R) 48

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, ADT 38, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba / Thaladi

Sep -Oct

ADT 38, IR 20, CO 43, Ponmani, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19,
ADT (R)46,

Navarai (Kullankar)

Dec -Jan

ADT 36, ADT 37, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

6. Pudukottai

Kuruvai

Jun -Jul

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD 20,
ADT 43, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, Ponmani, TRY 1, ASD 19,                ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

  IR 20, ADT 38, ADT 39, TRY 1, ASD 19, CO 43, ADT (R)46

Dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, TKM 10, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

Semi-dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, TKM 10, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

7. Madurai/Dindigul/Theni

Kar

May - Jun

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 36, IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT
42, MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45 (Dindigul
only), TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Samba

Aug

R 20, White Ponni, CO 42, CO 43, ADT 38, ADT 40,
MDU 4, TRY 1, ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

IR 20, White Ponni, MDU 3, ADT 39, MDU 4, CO 43,
ASD 19, TRY 1, ADT (R)46

Navarai

Dec -Jan

IR 64, ADT 36, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R) 2*

Semi-dry

Jul -Aug

PMK 2, TKM 10, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

8. Ramanathapuram

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, MDU 3, ASD 19, TRY 1,
ADT (R) 44, CORH 2

Rainfed & Semidry

Jul -Aug

ASD 17, ADT 36, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

9. Virudhunagar

Samba

Sep-Oct

CO 43, TRY 1, IR 20, ADT (R)46, ADT 39, CORH 2

Dry

Jul -Aug

ADT 36, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

10. Sivaganga

Semi-dry

Jul –Aug

ADT 36, IR 36, ADT 39, PMK 2, MDU 5, TKM (R) 12,
PMK (R) 3

11. Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi

Early Kar

Apr - May

IR 50, ADT 36, IR 64, ADT 42, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 47, ADT
(R) 47

Kar

May -Jun

ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18, ADT 42, ADT 43, CO 47,
ADT (R) 45, TRY (R) 2*, ADTRH 1, ADT (R) 47

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

White Ponni, IR 20, ADT 39, ASD 19, TRY 1, ADT (R)46,
CORH 2

Pishanam/Late Pishanam

Sep-Oct

ASD 18, ASD 16, ASD 19, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R)46

Semi Dry

July- Aug

MDU 5, ADT 36, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

12. Kanyakumari

Kar

May –Jun

ADT 36, IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 17, ASD 18, ADT 42,
MDU 5, ASD 20, ADT 43, ADT 45, CO 47, ADTRH 1, ADT(R)
47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Pishanam/ Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep – Oct

White Ponni, IR 20, Ponmani, CO 43, TRY 1, TPS 2, TPS 3,
ADT (R) 44, ADT 39, ASD 18, ASD 19, MDU 5, ADT (R) 46

Semi-dry

Jul – Aug

ADT 36, ASD 17, PMK 2, TKM (R) 12, PMK (R) 3

13. Salem, Namakkal

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ADT 36,IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ASD18, ADT 42, MDU
5, ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH1, ADT (R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, White Ponni, Bhavani, CO 43, MDU 4, TRY 1,
ASD 19, ADT (R) 44

Navarai

Dec - Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 18, ASD 19, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

14. Dharmapuri/ Krishnagiri

Kar

May -Jun

IR 50, IR 64, ASD 16, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43,
ASD 18, MDU 4, ASD 19, PAIYUR 1, ADT 42, TRY 1, MDU 5,         ASD 20, ADT 43, CO 47, ADTRH 1, TRY (R)2*, ADT (R) 47

Navarai

Dec- Jan

IR 64, ADT 37, ASD 16, ADT 36, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20, TRY (R)2*

Samba/       Late Samba

Aug - Oct

TRY 1, Bhavani, IR 20, White Ponni, CO 43, MDU 4, ASD 19, ADT (R) 44, ADT (R) 46

15. Coimbatore

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ADT 36, ASD 16, IR 64, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD
20, ADT 43,CO 47,ADT (R) 45,TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT(R) 47

Samba

Aug

IR 20, CO 43, White Ponni, ADT 39, MDU 4, TRY 1, ASD 19,
Bhavani, ADT(R) 44, CORH 2

Late Samba/Thaladi

Sep - Oct

IR 20, ADT 39, ADT(R) 46, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec -Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, TRY1, MDU 5, ASD
20, TRY (R) 2*

16. Erode

Kar

May - Jun

IR 50, ASD 16, IR 64, ADT 36, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5, ASD
20, ADT 43, CO, 47, ADT (R) 45, TRY (R)2*, ADTRH 1, ADT
(R) 47

District/Season

Month

Varieties

Samba

Aug

IR 20, Bhavani, CO 43, White Ponni, ADT 39, TRY 1, CO 46,
ADT (R) 44

Late Samba

Sep - Oct

IR 20, White Ponni, ADT 39, CO 43, TRY 1, CO 46, ADT (R)
46, CORH 2

Navarai

Dec – Jan

IR 20, ADT 36, IR 64, ASD 16, ASD 18, ADT 42, MDU 5,
ASD 20

17. The Nilgiris

Samba

Jul -Aug

IR 20, CO 43, TRY 1, ADT (R) 44

 

 

SYSTEMS OF RICE CULTIVATION
SYSTEMS OF RICE CULTIVATION IN TAMIL NADU
Rice is cultivated under puddled and un-puddled lowland situations in Tamil Nadu. ‘Transplanting’ and ‘direct wet seeding’ are the two environments under puddled lowland. Whereas, unpuddled lowland cultivation undergoes different environments like, dry seeding exclusively with rainfall, locally called as ‘rainfed rice’, with supplemental irrigation during peak vegetative and reproductive phases by the rain water collected / harvested in tanks (‘semi-dry rice’) and also assured irrigation from canal after 30-45 days of dry situation (also called semi-dry rice) . They are grouped as follows:
1. Transplanted puddled lowland rice
2. Direct seeded lowland rice
    a. Wet seeded rice in puddled soil
    b. Dry seeded rice in un-puddled soil
         i) Rainfed
         ii) Semi dry - supplemental irrigation
         iii) Semi dry - canal irrigation* (contingent crop)
3. Dry seeded upland rice
This system of rice cultivation is there in areas with high rainfall (like Assam and NE frontiers of India) where the land is sloping and terraced and there is no possibility for bunding to stagnate the water. Grain yield is poor due to loss of nutrients and soil mainly caused by water erosion. Moisture availability is mostly at saturation or at wet range. There is very limited area Dharmapuri district in Tamil Nadu.
4. Deep water rice 
Cultivation exits in certain pockets of Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur districts. These areas are not always seen with deep water situation. Varieties suitable for that situation can yield better grain yield.

 

1.TRANSPLANTED PUDDLED LOWLAND RICE

Nursery management\
Wet nursery
Nursery area
Select 20 cents (800 m2) of land area near to water source for raising seedlings for one hectare.
Seed rate

30 kg for long duration
40 kg for medium duration
60 kg for short duration varieties and
20 kg for hybrids
Seed treatment

  • Treat the seeds in Carbendazim or Pyroquilon or Tricyclozole solution at 2 g/l of water for 1 kg of seeds. Soak the seeds in water for 10 hrs and drain excess water.
  • This wet seed treatment gives protection to the seedlings up to 40 days from seedling disease such as blast and this method is better than dry seed treatment.
  • If the seeds are required for sowing immediately, keep the soaked seed in gunny in dark and cover with extra gunnies and leave for 24hrs for sprouting.
  • Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens: Treat the seeds with talc based formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 10g/kg of seed and soak in 1lit of water overnight. Decant the excess water and allow the seeds to sprout for 24hrs and then sow.
  • Seed treatment with Azospirillum: Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 3 packets (600g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets (1200g/ha)of Azophos. In bioinoculants mixed with sufficient water wherein the seeds are soaked overnight before sowing in the nursery bed (The bacterial suspension after decanting may be poured over the nursery area itself). Biocontrol agents are compatible with biofertilizers Biofertilizers and biocontrol agents can be mixed together for seed soaking Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible

Forming Seedbeds

    • Mark plots of 2.5m breadth with channels 30cm wide all around the seedbeds.
    • Length of the seed bed may vary from 8 to 10m according to soil and slope of the land.
    • Collect the puddled soil from the channel and spread on the seedbeds or drag a heavy stone  along the channel to lower it, so that the seed bed is at a higher level.
    • Level the surface of the seedbed, so that the water drains into the channel.

Sowing
Sow the sprouted seeds uniformly on the seedbed, having thin film of water in the nursery.
Water Management

  • Drain the water 18 to 24hrs after sowing
  • Care must be taken to avoid stagnation of water in any part of the seedbed.
  • Allow enough water to saturate the soil from 3rd to 5th day. From 5th day onwards, increase the water depth to 1.5cm depending on the height of the seedlings.
  • Thereafter maintain 2.5cm depth of water.

Weed Management

Apply any one of the pre-emergence herbicides viz., Pretilachlor + safener 0.3kg/ha, on 3rd or 4th day after sowing to control weeds in the lowland nursery. Keep a thin film of water and allow it to disappear. Avoid drainage of water. This will control germinating weeds.
Nutrient management

  • Apply 1tonne of fully decomposed FYM or compost to 20cents nursery and spread the manure uniformly on dry soil.
  • Basal application of DAP is recommended when the seedlings are to be pulled out in 20-25 days after sowing in less fertile nursery soils.
  • For that situation, before the last puddling, apply 40kg of DAP and if not readily available, apply straight fertilizers 16kg of urea and 120kg of super phosphate.
  • If seedlings are to be pulled out after 25 days, application of DAP is to be done 10 days prior to pulling out.
  • For clayey soils where root snapping is a problem, 4kg of gypsum and 1kg of DAP/cent can be applied at 10 days after sowing.

Dry nursery

  • Dry ploughed field with fine tilth is required.
  • Nursery area with sand and loamy soil status is more suitable for this type of nursery.
  • Area 20cents.
  • Plots of 1 to 1.5 m width of beds and channels may be formed. Length may be according to the slope and soil. Raised beds are more ideal if the soil is clayey in nature.
  • Seed rate and seed treatment as that of wet nursery.
  • Sowing may be dry seeding. Seeds may be covered with sand and finely powdered well decomposed farm yard manure.
  • Irrigation may be done to wet the soil to saturation.
  • Optimum age for transplanting – 4th leaf stage
  • This type of nursery is handy in times of delayed receipt of canal water.

MAIN FIELD MANAGEMENT
Land preparation

  • Plough the land during summer to economize the water requirement for initial preparation of land.
  • Flood the field 1 or 2days before ploughing and allow water to soak in. Keep the surface of the field covered with water.
  • Keep water to a depth of 2.5cm at the time of puddling.

Special technologies for problem soils:

a) For fluffy paddy soils: compact the soil by passing 400kg stone roller or oil-drum with stones inside, eight times at proper moisture level (moisture level at friable condition of soil which is approximately 13 to18%) once in three years, to prevent the sinking of draught animals and workers during puddling.

b) For sodic soils with pH values of more than 8.5, plough at optimum moisture regime, apply gypsum at 50% gypsum requirement uniformly, impound water, provide drainage for leaching out soluble salts and apply green leaf manure at 5 t/ha, 10 to 15 days before transplanting.
Mix 37.5kg of Zinc sulphate per ha with sand to make a total quantity of 75kg and spread the mixture uniformly on the leveled field. Do not incorporate the mixture in the soil. Rice under sodic soil responds well to these practices.
c) For saline soils with EC values of more than 4 dS/m, provide lateral and main drainage channels (60cm deep and 45cm wide), apply green leaf manure at 5 t/ha at 10 to 15 days before transplanting and 25% extra dose of nitrogen in addition to recommended P and K and ZnSo4 at 37.5 kg/ha at planting
d) For acid soils apply lime based on the soil analysis for obtaining normal rice yields. Lime is applied 2.5t/ha before last ploughing. Apply lime at this rate to each crop up to the 5th crop.

STAND ESTABLISHMENT
Optimum age of seedlings for quick establishment
Optimum age of the seedlings is 18-22 days for short, 25-30 days for medium and 35-40 days for long duration varieties.

 

Pulling out the seedlings

  • Pull out the seedlings at the appropriate time (4th leaf stage).
  • Pulling at 3rd leaf stage is also possible. These seedlings can produce more tillers, provided enough care taken during the establishment phase through thin film of water management and perfect leveling of main field.
  • Transplanting after 5th and higher order leaf numbers will affect the performance of the crop and grain yield. Then they are called as ‘aged seedlings’. Special package is needed to minimize the grain yield loss while planting those aged seedlings.

Root dipping

Prepare the slurry with 5 packets (1000 g)/ha of Azospirillum and 5 packets (1000g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 10 packets of (2000g/ha) of Azophos inoculant in 40 lit. of water and dip
the root portion of the seedlings for 15 - 30 minutes in bacterial suspension and transplant.


Planting seedlings in the main field


Soil

Medium and low fertility

High fertility

Duration

Short

Medium

Long

Short

Medium

Long

Spacing (cm)

15x10

20x10

20x15

20x10

20x15

20x20

Hills / m2

66

50

33

50

33

25

  • Transplant 2-3 seedlings/hill for short duration and 2 seedlings/hill for medium and long
  • duration varieties
  • Shallow planting (3 cm) ensures quick establishment and more tillers.
  • Deeper planting (> 5cm) leads to delayed establishment and reduced tillers.
  • Line planting permits rotary weeding and its associated benefits.
  • Allow a minimum row spacing of 20 cm to use rotary weeder.
  • Fill up the gaps between 7th and 10th DAT.

Management of Aged seedlings*
* Which developed tillers / underwent node elongation in the nursery itself and
* About half of its leaf producing capacity may be already over.

  • Follow the spacing recommended to medium and low fertility soil
  • Plant one or two seedlings per hill
  • Avoid cluster planting of aged seedlings, which are hindering the formation of new tillers.
  • New tillers alone are capable of producing normal harvestable panicle. Weak panicle may appear in the mother culm within three weeks after transplanting and vanishes well before harvest.
  • To encourage the tiller production, enhance the basal N application by 50% from the recommended and thereafter follow the normal schedule recommended for other stages.

Gap filling
Fill the gaps if any within 7 - 10 days after planting.
NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT
Application of organic manures

  • Apply 12.5 t of FYM or compost or green leaf manure @ 6.25 t/ha.
  • If green manure is raised @ 20 kg /ha in situ, incorporate it to a depth of 15 cm using a green manure trampler or tractor.
  • In the place of green manure, press-mud / composted coir-pith can also be used.

Stubble incorporation

  • Apply 22 kg urea / ha at the time of first puddling while incorporating the stubbles of previous crop to compensate immobilization of N by the stubbles.
  • This may be done at least 10 days prior to planting of subsequent crop. This recommendation is more suitable for double crop wetlands, wherein, the second crop is transplanted in succession with short turn around period.

Biofertilizer application

  • Broadcast 10 kg of soil based powdered BGA flakes at 10 DAT for the dry season crop.
  • Maintain a thin film of water for multiplication.
  • Raise azolla as a dual crop by inoculating 250 kg/ha 3 to 5 DAT and then incorporate during weeding for the wet season crop.
  • Mix 10 packets (2000 g)/ha of Azospirillum and 10 packets (2000g/ha)of Phosphobacteria or 20 packets (4000g/ha) of Azophos inoculants with 25 kg FYM and 25 kg of soil and broadcast the mixture uniformly in the main field before transplanting and Pseudomonas fluorescens(Pf 1) at 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg FYM and 25 kg of soil and broadcast the mixture uniformly before transplanting.

Application of inorganic fertilizers

  • Apply fertilizer nutrients as per soil test recommendations
  • N dose may be through Leaf Color Chart (LCC)
  • P & K may be through Site Specific Nutrition Management by Omission plot technique

Blanket recommendation as follows:


Nutrients

N

P2O5

K2O

(kg/ha)

Short duration varieties (dry season)

 

 

 

a) Cauvery delta & Coimbatore tract

150

50

50

b) For other tracts

120

40

40

Medium and long duration varieties (wet season)

150

50

50

Hybrid rice

175

60

60

Low N responsive cultivars (like Improved White
Ponni)

75*

50

50

*For Ponni, N should be applied in three splits at AT, PI and H stages** in addition to GLM or 
FYM application.
**Phenological stages of rice (days after sowing)


Stages

Short (105)

Medium (135)

Long (150)

Active Tillering (AT)

35-40

50-55

55-60

Panicle Initiation (PI)

45-50

70-75

85-90

Heading (H)

70-75

100-105

115-120


Split application of N and K

  • Apply N and K in four equal splits viz., basal, tillering, panicle initiation and heading stages.
  • Tillering and Panicle initiation periods are crucial and should not be reduced with the recommended quantity.
  • N management through LCC may be adopted wherever chart is available as given below

N management through LCC

  • Time of application is decided by LCC score
  • Take observations from 14 DAT in transplanted rice or 21 DAS in direct seeded rice.
  • Repeat the observations at weekly intervals up to heading
  • Observe the leaf colour in the fully opened third leaf from the top as index leaf.
  • Match the leaf color with the colours in the chart during morning hours (8-10 am).
  • Take observation in 10 places.
  • LCC critical value is 3.0 in low N response cultures like White Ponni and 4.0 in other cultivars and hybrids
  • When 6/10 observations show less than the critical colour value, N can be applied @ 35kg N/ha in dry season and 30kg N/ha in wet season per application per ha.

Application of P fertilizer

  • P may be applied as basal and incorporated.
  • When the green manure is applied, rock phosphate can be used as a cheap source of P fertilizer.
  • If rock phosphate is applied, the succeeding rice crop need not be supplied with P. Application of rock phosphate + single super phosphate or DAP mixed in different proportions (75:25 or 50:50) is equally effective as SSP or DAP alone.

Application of zinc sulphate

  • Apply 25 kg of zinc sulphate mixed with 50 kg dry sand just before transplanting.
  • It is enough to apply 12.5 kg zinc sulphate /ha, if green manure (6.25 t/ha) or enriched FYM, is applied.
  • If deficiency symptom appears, foliar application of 0.5% Zinc sulphate + 1.0% urea can be given at 15 days interval until the Zn deficiency symptoms disappear.

Application of gypsum
Apply 500 kg of gypsum/ha (as source of Ca and S nutrients) at last ploughing.
Foliar nutrition
Foliar spray of 1% urea + 2% DAP + 1% KCl at PI and 10 days later for all varieties.
Nutrient deficiency / toxicity symptoms
Nitrogen deficiency: Plants become stunted and yellow in appearance first on lower leaves. In case of severe deficiency the leaves will turn brown and die. Deficiency symptoms first appear at the leaf-tip and progress along the midrib until the entire leaf is dead.
Potassium deficiency: Bluish green leaves - when young, older leaves irregular. Chlorotic and necrotic areas - grain formation is poor - weakening of the straw which results in lodging.
Magnesium deficiency: Leaves are chlorotic with white tips.
Iron toxicity: Brown spots on the lower leaves starting from tips and proceeding to the leaf base and turns into green or orange purple leaves and spreading to the next above leaves.
Zinc deficiency: Lower leaves have chlorotic particularly towards the base. Deficient plants give a brown rusty appearance.

Neem treated urea and coal-tar treated urea

Blend the urea with crushed neem seed or neem cake 20% by weight. Powder neem cake topass through 2mm sieve before mixing with urea. Keep it overnight before use (or) urea can be mixed with gypsum in 1:3 ratios, or urea can be mixed with gypsum and neem cake at 5:4:1 ratio to increase the nitrogen use efficiency. For treating 100 kg urea, take one kg coaltar and 1.5 litres of kerosene. Melt coal-tar over a low flame and dissolve it in kerosene. Mix urea with the solution thoroughly in a plastic container, using a stick. Allow it to dry in shade on a polythene sheet. This can be stored for a month and applied basally.
WEED MANAGEMENT
Use of rotary weeder from 15 DAT at 10 days interval. It saves labour for weeding, aeratesthe soil and root zone, prolongs the root activity, and improves the grain filling though efficient translocation and ultimately the grain yield. Cultural practices like dual cropping of rice-azolla, and rice-green manure (described in wet seeded rice section 2.5 & 2.6 of this chapter) reduces the weed infestation to a greater extent. Summer ploughing and cultivation of irrigated dry crops during post-rainy periods reduces the weed infestation.
Pre-emergence herbicides

  • Use Butachlor 1.25kg/ha or Anilophos 0.4kg/ha as pre-emergence application. Alternatively, pre-emergence application of herbicide mixture viz., Butachlor 0.6kg + 2,4 DEE 0.75kg/ha, or Anilophos + 2, 4 DEE ‘ready-mix’ at 0.4kg/ha followed by one hand weeding on 30 - 35 DAT will have a broad spectrum of weed control.
  • Any herbicide has to be mixed with 50kg of dry sand on the day of application (3 - 4 DAT) and applied uniformly to the field with thin film water on the 3rd DAT. Water should not be drained for next 2 days from the field (or) fresh irrigation should not be given.

Post - emergence herbicides
If pre-emergence herbicide application is not done, hand weeding has to be done on 15th DAT. 2,4-D sodium salt (Fernoxone 80% WP) 1.25 kg/ha dissolved in 625 litres with a high volume sprayer, three weeks after transplanting or when the weeds are in 3 - 4 leaf stage.
WATER MANAGEMENT

  • Puddling and leveling minimizes the water requirement
  • Plough with tractor drawn cage wheel to reduce percolation losses and to save water requirement up to 20%.
  • Maintain 2.5cm of water over the puddle and allow the green manure to decompose for a minimum of 7 days in the case of less fibrous plants like sunnhemp and 15 days for more fibrous green manure plants like Kolinchi (Tephrosia purpurea).
  • At the time of transplanting, a shallow depth of 2cm of water is adequate since high depth of water will lead to deep planting resulting in reduction of tillering.
  • Maintain 2 cm of water up to seven days of transplanting.
  • After the establishment stage, cyclic submergence of water (as in table) is the best practice for rice crop. This cyclic 5cm submergence has to be continued throughout the crop period.

Days after disappearance of ponded water at which irrigation is to be given


Soil type

Summer

Winter

Loamy

1 day

3 days

Clay

Just before/immediately after disappearance

1 - 2 days

  • Moisture stress due to inadequate water at rooting and tillering stage causes poor root growth leading to reduction in tillering, poor stand and low yield.
  • Critical stages of water requirement in rice are a) panicle initiation, b) booting, c) heading and d) flowering. During these stages, the irrigation interval should not exceed the stipulated time so as to cause the depletion of moisture below the saturation level.
  • During booting and maturity stages continuous inundation of 5cm and above leads toadvancement in root decay and leaf senescence, delay in heading and reduction in the number of filled grains per panicle and poor harvest index.
  • Provide adequate drainage facilities to drain excess water or strictly follow irrigation schedule of one day after disappearance of ponded water. Last irrigation may be 15 days ahead of harvest.

Precautions for irrigation

  • The field plot can be 25 to 50 cents depending on the source of irrigation.
  • Field to field irrigation should be avoided. Field should be irrigated individually from a channel.
  • Small bund may be formed parallel to the main bund of the field at a distance of 30 to 45cm within the field to avoid leakages of water through main bund crevices.
  • To minimize percolation loss, the depth of stagnated water should be 5cm or less.
  • In water logged condition, form open drains, about 60cm in depth and 45cm width across the field.
  • Care should be taken not to allow development of cracks.
  • In canal command area, conjunctive use of surface and ground water may be resorted to for judicious use of water.

HARVESTING

  • Taking the average duration of the crop as an indication, drain the water from the field 7 to 10 days before the expected harvest date as draining hastens maturity and improves harvesting conditions.
  • When 80% of the panicles turn straw colour, the crop is ready for harvest. Even at this stage, the leaves of some of the varieties may remain green.
  • Confirm maturity by selecting the most mature tiller and dehusk a few grains. If the rice is clear and firm, it is in hard dough stage.
  • When most of the grains at the base of the panicle in the selected tiller are in a hard dough stage, the crop is ready for harvest. At this stage harvest the crop, thresh and winnow the grains.
  • Dry the grains to 12% moisture level for storage. Grain yield in rice is estimated only at 14% moisture for any comparison.
  • Maturity may be hastened by 3-4 days by spraying 20% NaCl a week before harvest to escape monsoon rains.


SEEDLING THROWING METHOD OF STAND ESTABLISHMENT

  • 20 days old seedlings of short duration rice varieties
  • Requirement of seedlings will be approximately 20% more than the line planting or equal to random planting.
  • The seedlings are thrown into the puddled leveled field by labour without using force.
  • Suitable for all seasons except Thaladi or heavy rain season.
  • 50% labour shaving as compared to line planting and 35% to random planting.
  • Up to 7-10 days of seedling throwing care should be taken to maintain thin film of water
  • Other cultural operations are same as in transplanted rice
  • Grain yield will be equal to line planted crop and 10-12% higher than random planted crop.

TRANSPLANTED HYBRID RICE


Seed rate

20 kg per hectare

Nursery

Basal application of DAP at 2 kg/cent of nursery area. Sparse sowing of seeds at one kg/cent of nursery area will give robust seedlings with 1-2 tillers per seedling at the time of planting. If the soil is heavy, apply 4 kg gypsum/cent of nursery area, 10 days before pulling of seedlings

Age of seedling

20 to 25 days

Spacing (cm)

20 x 10 (50 hills/m2) or 25 x 10 (40 hills/m2) according to soil fertility

Seedlings/ hill

One (along with tillers if already produced)

Fertilizer

175:60:60 kg N, P2O5 and K2O/ha

Other package of practices: same as in transplanted rice varieties.

 

INTEGRATED CROP MANAGEMENT - RICE (SRI)
Season
Dry season with assured irrigation is more suitable.
Difficulty in crop establishment may be seen in areas with heavy downpour (NE Monsoon periods of Tamil Nadu)
Varieties
Hybrids and varieties with heavy tillering
NURSERY
Seed rate
7- 8 kg for single seedling per hill
12 -15 kg for two seedlings per hill wherever difficulty in establishment of rice is seen
Mat nursery preparation

  • Preparation of nursery area : Prepare 100 m2 nurseries to plant 1 ha. Select a level area

near the water source. Spread a plastic sheet or used polythene gunny bags on the shallow
raised bed to prevent roots growing deep into soil.

  • Preparation of soil mixture : Four (4) m3 of soil mix is needed for each 100 m2 of nursery. Mix 70% soil + 20% well-decomposed pressmud / bio-gas slurry / FYM + 10% rice hull.
  • Incorporate in the soil mixture 1.5 kg of powdered di -ammonium phosphate or 2 kg 17-17-17 NPK fertilizer.
  • Filling in soil mixture : Place a wooden frame of 0.5 m long, 1 m wide and 4 cm deep divided into 4 equal segments on the plastic sheet or banana leaves. Fill the frame almost to the top with the soil mixture.
  • Pre-germinating the seeds 2 days before sowing : Soak the seeds for 24 h, drain and

incubate the soaked seeds for 24 h, sow when the seeds sprout and radical (seed root)
grows to 2-3 mm long.

  • Sowing : Sow the pre-germinated seeds weighing 90 -100 g / m-2 (100g dry seed may weigh 130g after sprouting) uniformly and cover them with dry soil to a thickness of 5mm. Sprinkle water immediately using rose can to soak the bed and remove the wooden frame and continue the process until the required area is completed.
  • Watering : Water the nursery with rose can as and when needed (twice or thrice a day) to

keep the soil moist. Protect the nursery from heavy rains for the first 5 DAS. At 6 DAS,
maintain thin film of water all around the seedling mats. Drain the water 2 days before
removing the seedling mats for transplanting.

  • Spraying fertilizer solution (optional) : If seedling growth is slow, sprinkle 0.5% urea + 0.5% zinc sulfate solution at 8-10 DAS.
  • Lifting seedling mats : Seedlings reach sufficient height for planting at 15 days. Lift the

seedling mats and transport them to main field.
Main field preparation

  • Puddled lowland prepared as described in transplanted section
  • Perfect leveling is a pre-requisite for the water management proposed hereunder

Transplanting

  • 1-2 seedlings of 15 days old
  • Square planting of 22.5 x 22.5 cm (9 x 9 inch)
  • Fill up the gaps between 7th and 10th DAT.
  • Transplant within 30 minutes of pulling out of seedlings.
  • There may be difficulty in crop establishment in areas with heavy downpour (North East

Monsoon periods of Tamil Nadu)
Irrigation management

  • Irrigation only to moist the soil in the early period of 10 days
  • Restoring irrigation to a maximum depth of 2.5cm after development of hairline cracks in the soil until panicle initiation
  • Increasing irrigation depth to 5.0cm after PI one day after disappearance of ponded water

Weed management

  • Using rotary weeder / Cono weeder
  • Moving the weeder with forward and backward motion to bury the weeds and as well to
  • aerate the soil at 7-10 days interval from 10-15 days after planting on either direction of the rows and column.
  • Manual weeding is also essential to remove the weeds closer to rice root zone.

Nutrient management

  • As per transplanted rice.
  • Use of LCC has more advantage in N management.
  • Green manure and farm yard manure application will enhance the growth and yield of rice in this system approach.

 Other package of practices as recommended to transplanted rice

 

CROP PROTECTION
PESTS 
1. Thrips: Stenchaetothrips biformis 
Symptoms of damage

  • Laceration of  the tender leaves and suck the plant sap
  • Yellow (or) silvery streaks on the leaves of young seedlings
  • Terminal rolling and drying of leaves from tip to base
  • It causes damage both in nursery and main field

Management

  • Sampling: Wet your palm with water and pass over the foliage in 12 places in the nursery. If thrips population exceeds 60 numbers in 12 passes or if rolling of 1/2 area of first and 2nd leaves in 10% of seedlings is noticed.
  • Spray any one of the following in nursery stage

Phosphamidon    40 SL       50 ml
Monocrotophos   36 SL       40 ml
Endosulfan          35 EC      80 ml 
2. Green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens,
Symptom of damage

  • Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards.
  • Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing

Management

  • Use resistant varieties like IR 50, CR 1009, Co 46.
  • Apply neem cake @ 12.5 kg/20 cent nursery as basal dose
  • The vegetation on the bunds should also be sprayed with the insecticides
  • Set up light traps

3. Rice case worm, Nymphula depunctalis 
Symptom of damage

  • Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery
  • Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves
  • Floating of tubular cases on the water

Management

  • Drain the water
  • Dislodge the cases – running rope
  • Nursery - Mix 100 ml kerosene in standing water and spray endosulfan 35 EC 30 ml / 8 cents
  • Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha or   monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha

4. Paddy stemborer: Scirpophaga incertulas 
Symptom of damage

  • Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip.
  • Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller
  • Causes drying of the central shoot known as “dead heart”
  • Grown up plant whole panicle becomes dried “white ear”.

Management

  • Resistant varieties: Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6.
  • Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation
  • Pull out and destroy the affected tillers
  • Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths
  • Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles
  • Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on twice @ 5  cc/ha/ (followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT)
  • Apply Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki and neem seed kernel extract

Spray any one of the following insecticides 
Monocrotophos 36 SL - 1000 ml/ha or  Endosulfan 35 EC  -1000 ml/ha or Quinalphos  25 EC  - 1000 ml/ha or  Phosphamidon 40 SL  -  600 ml/ha or Profenophos  50 EC -1000 ml/ha


5. Swarming caterpillar, Spodoptera mauritia
Symptom of damage

  • Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale
  • Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.
  • They feed gregariously and march from field to field.

Management

  • Kerosenate the water while irrigation – suffocation
  • Allow ducks into the field   

Nursery

  • Drain the water
  • Spray chlorpyriphos 20 EC 80ml or endosulfan 35 EC 80ml + 20 lit of water for 8 cents

6. Gall midge, Orseolia oryzea
Symptom of damage

  • Maggot feeds at the base of the growing shoot
  • Causing formation of a tube like gall that is similar to “onion leaf” or “Silver-shoot”.
  • Infested tillers produce no panicles.

Management

  • Early ploughing
  • Resistant varieties: MDU 3, Shakthi, Vikram and Sureka
  • Harvest the crop and plough immediately
  • Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early)
  • Use early maturing  varieties
  • Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer
  • Setup light trap and monitor the adult flies

7. Rice skipper, Pelopidas mathias
Symptom of damage

  • Edges of the leaves are fastened with webbing.
  • Backward rolling of leaves,
  • caterpillar feeds from margin to  inwards

Management

  • Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha  or   monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha

8. Leaf folder (or) leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis mainsails / Marasmia patnalis
Symptom of damage

  • Leaves fold longitudinally and larvae remains inside.
  • Larvae scrape the green tissues of the leaves and becomes white and dry.
  • During severe infestation the whole field exhibits scorched appearance

Management

  • Resistant varieties: TNAU LFR 831311, Cauveri, Akash, TKM 6
  • Clipping of the affected leaves
  • Keep the bunds clean
  • Avoid excessive nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Light traps to attract and kill moths
  • Release Trichogramma chilonis @ 1, 25,000/ha thrice
  • Spray NSKE 5 % or carbaryl 50 WP 1 Kg or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 1250 ml/ ha.

9. Rice horned caterpillar, Melanitis ismene
 Damage

  • Larva feeds on leaf blades of rice.
  • Leaves are defoliated from the margin or tip irregularly.
  • Yellow eye like spot one on each of the fore wings.

Management

  • Spray endosulfan 35 EC 1000 ml / ha  or   monocrotophos 36 WSC 500 ml / ha

10. Grasshopper, Hieroglyphus banian Short horned grasshopper, Oxya  nitidula 
Symptom of damage

  • Irregular feeding on seedlings and leaf blade
  • Cutting of stem at panicle stage
  • Completely defoliate the plants leaving only the mid ribs

Management

  • Expose the eggs to be picked up by birds after ploughing and trim the bunds
  • Dusting malathion 5% @ 20 kg/ha.

11. Spiny beetle / Rice hispa, Dicladispa armigera 
Symptoms of damage

  • Adults feed on chlorophyll by scraping and causing white parallel streaks
  • White patches along with long axis of leaf.
  • Grubs mine into the leaves and make blister near leaf tips.

Management

  • Leaf tip containing blotch mines should be  destroyed         
  • Manual collection and killing of beetles – hand nets
  • Spray endosulfan 35 EC @1000ml/ha

12. Whorl maggot, Hydrellia sasakii,
Symptom of damage

  • Maggot  feeds on the tender tissue inside the whorl
  • Yellowish white longitudinal marginal blotching with hole
  • Leaves shrivelled plant stunted and maturity delayed.
  • Drooping of young leaves near the tip

Management

  • Remove the alternate hosts and adjust the time of planting (early)
  • Use early maturing  varieties
  • Optimum recommendation of potash fertilizer
  • Spray endosulfan 35 EC @1000ml/ha

13. Brown plant leafhopper, Nilaparvata lugens 
Symptoms of damage

  • Nymphs and adults congregate at the base of the plant above the water level
  • Affected plant dries up and gives a scorched appearance called “hopper burn”.
  • Circular patches of drying and lodging of matured plant
  • It is vector of grassy stunt, ragged stunt and wilted stunt diseases

Management

  • Use resistant/tolerant varieties like Aruna, ADT 36, Co 42, Co 46 IR 36, IR 72.
  • Avoid close planting
  • To provide 30 cm rogue spacing at every 2.5 m to reduce the pest incidence.
  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Control irrigation by intermittent draining
  • Set up light traps during night
  • Yellow pan traps during day time
  • Conserve  natural enemies like Lycosa pseudoannulataCyrtorhinus lividipennis
  • Avoid synthetic pyrethroids, methyl parathion, fenthion and quinalphos causing resurgence
  • Drain the water before the use of insecticides
  • Apply any one of the following
    • Phosphamidon 40 SL@ 1000 ml/ha,
    • Monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1250 ml/ha
    • Carbofuran 3 G @ 17.5 kg/ha
    • Imidacloprid 18.5@ 100 ml/ha
    • Thiomethoxam 20 WDG@ 100 ml/ha
    • Dichlorvos 76 WSC @  350 ml/ ha
    • Neem oil   3% @  15 lit/ha
    • Iluppai oil  6% @  30 lit/ha
    • Neem seed kernel extract 5% @ 25 kg/ha

14. White backed plant hopper, Sogatella furcifera, 
Damage

  • Suck the sap and cause stunted growth.
  • “Hopper burn” is caused in irregular patches.

Management

  • Avoid use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Control irrigation by intermittent draining

Apply any one of the following

  • Phosphamidon 40 SL@ 1000 ml/ha,
  • Monocrotophos 36 SL @ 1250 ml/ha
  • Carbofuran 3 G @ 17.5 kg/ha
  • Dichlorvos 76 WSC @  350 ml/ ha
  • Neem oil   3% @  15 lit/ha
  • Iluppai oil  6% @  30 lit/ha
  • Neem seed kernel extract 5% @ 25 kg/ha

15. Mealybug, Brevennia rehi
Damage

  • Large number of insects remains in leaf sheath and suck the sap.
  • Plants become week, yellowish and very much stunted in circular patches.
  • Presence of white waxy fluff in leaf sheaths

Management

  • During field preparation - remove the grasses from the bunds and trim the bunds
  • Remove and destroy the affected plants.
  •  Spray any one of the following insecticides in the initial stage of infestation
    • dimethoate 30 EC 500 ml/ha
    • methyl demeton 25 EC@ 500 ml/ha.
    • Conserve the natural enemies like Scymnus sp.,Anatrichus pygmaeus, and Mepachymerus ensifer

16. Rice earhead bug: Leptocorisa acuta
Symptoms of damage

  • Sucking the sap from individual grains, which are in milky stage.
  • Individual grains become chaffy
  • Black spots on the grains at the site of feeding puncture.
  • Buggy odour in rice field during milky stage

Management
Dust any one of the following at 25 kg/ha twice, the first during flowering and second a week later

  • Quinalphos  1.5 D                                          
  • Carbaryl        10 D
  • Malathion        5 D
  • KKM             10 D
  • KKM dust formulation consists of 10% of Acorus calamus rhizome powder and 90% of fly ash
  • This dust formulation repels the rice earhead bug.                

Spray any one of the following twice as above

  • Fenthion 100 EC @ 500 ml/ha or Malathion 50 EC @ 500 ml/ha    
  • Neem seed kernel extract 5% @  25 kg/ha or Notchi or Prosopis leaf extract 10% .

Diseases           
1. Blast :Pyricularia grisea (P.oryzae)
Symptoms

  • Disease can infect paddy at all growth stages and all aerial parts of plant (Leaf, neck and node).
  • Among the three leaves and neck infections are more severe.
  • Small specks originate on leaves - subsequently enlarge into spindle shaped spots(0.5 to 1.5cm length, 0.3 to 0.5cm width) with ashy center.
  • Several spots coalesce -> big irregular patches

Leaf Blast :

  • Severe cases of infection - entire crop give a blasted or burnt appearance- hence the name "BLAST"
  • Severe cases - lodging of crop (after ear emergence)

Neck Blast

  • Neck region of panicle develops a black color and shrivels completely / partially grain set inhibited, panicle breaks at the neck and hangs

Nodal Blast: Nodes become black and break up
Management

  • Avoid excess N - fertilizer application
  • Apply nitrogen in three split doses.
  • Removes weed hosts from bunds.
  • Use of tolerant varieties (Penna, Pinakini, Tikkana, Sreeranga, Simphapuri, Palghuna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Prabhat, Co 47, IR - 64, , IR - 36, Jaya)
  • Burning of straw and stubbles after harvest
  • Dry seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens talc formulation @10g/kg of seed.
  • Stagnate water to a depth of 2.5cm over an area of 25m2 in the nursery. Sprinkle 2.5 kg of P. fluorescens (talc) and mix with stagnated water. Soak the root system of seedlings for 30 min and transplant.
  • Spray P. fluorescens talc formulation @ 0.5% from 45 days after transplanting at 10 day intervals, three times.
  • Seed treatment at 2.0 g/kg seed with Captan or Carbendazim or Thiram or Tricyclazole.
  • Spraying of Tricyclazole at 1g/lit of water or Edifenphos at 1 ml/lit of water or Carbendazim at 1.0 gm/lit.
  • 3 to 4 sprays each at nursery, tillering stage and panicle emergence stage may be required for complete control.

Nursery stage

  • Light infection - Spray Carbendazim or Edifenphos @ 0.1 %.

Pre-Tillering to Mid-Tillering

  • Light at 2 to 5 % disease severities - Apply Edifenphos or Carbendazim @ 0.1 %. Delay top dressing of N fertilizers when infection is seen. Panicle initiation to booting
  • At 2 to 5% leaf area damage spray Edifenphos or Carbendazim or Tricyclazole @ 0.1 %.

Flowering and after 

  • At 5 % leaf area damage or 1 to 2 % neck infection spray Edifenphos or Carbendazim or Tricyclazole @ 1 g /lit of water.  

2. Bacterial Leaf BlightXanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Symptoms

  • Seedling wilt or kresek
  • Water-soaked to yellowish stripes on leaf blades or starting at leaf tips then later increase in length and width with a wavy margin
  • Appearance of bacterial ooze that looks like a milky or opaque dewdrop on young lesions early in the morning
  • Lesions turn yellow to white as the disease advances
  • If the cut end of leaf is kept in water it becomes turbid because of bacterial ooze.

Management

  • Secure disease free seed
  • Grow nurseries preferably in isolated upland conditions
  • Avoid clipping of seedlings during transplanting.
  • Balanced fertilization, avoid excess N - application
  • Skip N - application at booting (if disease is moderate)
  • Drain the field (except at flowering stage of the crop)
  • Destruction of wild collateral hosts
  • Avoid flow of water from affected fields
  • Grow tolerant varieties (IR 20, TKM 6).
  • Spraying streptomycin sulphate and tetracycline combination 300g +copper oxychloride 1.25 kg/ha.

3. Rice tungro disease : Rice tungro virus (RTSV, RTBV) 
Symptoms

  • Plants affected by tungro exhibit stunting and reduced tillering. Their leaves become yellow or orange-yellow, may also have rust-colored spots.
  • Discoloration begins from leaf tip and extends down to the blade or the lower leaf portion
  • Delayed flowering, - panicles small and not completely exerted
  • Most panicles sterile or partially filled grains

Management

  • Set up light traps to monitoring and attract vectors
  • Destruction of weed hosts on bunds
  • Leaf yellowing can be minimized by spraying 2 % urea mixed with Mancozeb at 2.5 gm/lit.
  • Instead of urea foliar fertilizer like multi-K (potassium nitrate) can be sprayed at 1 per cent which impart resistance also because of high potassium content.
  • Grow tolerant varieties like Co 45, Co 48, Surekha, Vikramarya, Bharani, IR 36 
  • In epidemic areas follow rotation with pulses or oil seeds.
  • Green leaf hoppers as vectors are to be controlled effectively in time by spraying Monocrotophos at 1.6 to 2.2 ml/lit or Fenthion /Phosphomidan @1.0 ml/lit or Neem by applying Carbofuran 3 G @ 10 kg/acre.
  • In nursery when virus infection is low, apply Carbofuran granules @ 1 kg a.i./ha to control vector population.
  • During pre-tillering to mid-tillering when one affected hill/m is observed apply Carbofuran granules @ 1 kg a.i./ha or spray Monocrotophos @ 1.6 to 2.2ml/lit to control insect vector.

4. Sheath Blight: Rhizoctonia solani
Symptom

  • Initial lesions are water-soaked to greenish gray and later become grayish white with brown margin
  • Lesions on leaf sheaths near waterline
  • Presence of sclerotia
  • Lesions may coalesce death of the whole leaf
  • Partially filled or empty grains

Management

  • Apply FYM 12.5 t/ha or green manure 6.25 t/ha to promote antagonistic microflora.
  • Soil application of P. fluorescens @ 2.5 kg/ha mixed with 50 kg FYM after 30 days of transplanting.
  • Foliar spraying of P. fluorescens @0.2% at boot leaf stage and 10 days later.
  • Avoid flow of irrigation water from infected to healthy field.
  • Carbendazim (1 g/lit), Propiconazole (1ml/lit) may be applied.
  • Spraying of infected plants with fungicides, such as Benomyl and Iprodione, and antibiotics, such as Validamycin and Polyoxin, is effective against the disease
  • Reduce Nitrogen dosage  and  skip top dressing

5. Sheath Rot: Sarocladium oryzae 
Symptoms

  • Irregular spots or lesions, with dark reddish brown margins and gray center
  • Discoloration in the flag leaf sheath
  • Lesions enlarge and often coalesce and may cover the entire leaf sheath
  • Severe infection causes entire or parts of  young panicles to remain within the sheath
  • Unemerged panicles rot and florets turn red-brown to dark brown
  • Whitish powdery growth inside the affected sheaths and young panicles
  • Infected panicles sterile, shrivelled, or with partially filled grain.

Management

  • Apply Ipomea or Prosophis leaf powder extract 5 % or NSKE 5%
  • Spraying of Mancozeb at 2.5 g or Carbendazim at 1.0 g/lit or Benomyl 0.5 g/lit of water at flowering stage
  • Destruction of the infected plant debris by burning

6. Brown Spot : Helminthosporium oryzae 
Symptoms

  • Occur in nursery as well as main field
  • Causes blight of seedlings
  • Leaf spotting is very common
  • Isolated brown, round to oval (resemble sesame seed)
  • Spots measures 0.5 to 2.0mm in breadth - coalesce to form large patches.
  • Seed also infected (black or brown spots on glumes spots are covered by olivaceous velvety growth)
  • Infection also occurs on panicle neck with brown colour appearance
  • 50% yield reduction in severe cases

Management

  • Use disease free seeds.
  • Since seed soak / seed treatment with Captan or  Thiram at 2.0g /kg of seed
  • Spray Mancozeb (2.0g/lit) or Edifenphos (1ml/lit) - 2 to 3 times at 10 - 15 day intervals.
  • Spray preferably during early hours or afternoon at flowering and post - flowering stages.

7. False Smut: Ustilaginoidea virens 
Symptoms

  • Only few grains in a panicle are usually infected and the rest are normal
  • Individual rice grain transformed into a mass of yellow fruiting bodies
  • Growth of velvety spores that enclose floral parts
  • Immature spores slightly flattened, smooth, yellow, and covered by a membrane
  • Growth of spores result to broken membrane
  • Mature spores orange and turn yellowish green or greenish black

Management

  • Use disease free seeds
  • Destruction of straw and stubble
  • At tillering and preflowering stages, spray Hexaconazole @ 1ml/lit or Chlorothalonil 2g/lit.

8. Grain discoluration – fungal complex 
Symptoms

  • Drechslera oryzae, Curvularia lunata, Sarocladium oryzae, Phoma sp., Microdochium sp., Nigrospora spand Fusarium sp.,
  • Grains are infected either after milk stage or after harvest or during storage
  • Infection may be internal or external causing discoluration of the glumes or kernels
  • Dark brown or black spots appear on grains
  • Under humid condition prominent fungal growth

Management

  • Spray the crop with Carbendazim + Mancozeb (1:1) @ 2g/lit. at boot leaf stage and 50 % flowering.
  • Store grains at 13-14 % moisture.

9. Leaf streak -Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola 
Symptoms

  • Initially, small, dark-green, water-soaked translucent streaks on veins from tillering to booting stage
  • Lesions turn brown and bacteria ooze out under humid weather.

Management

  • Secure disease free seed
  • Grow nurseries preferably in isolated upland conditions
  • Avoid clipping of seedlings during transplanting.
  • Balanced fertilization, avoid excess N - application
  • Skip N - application at booting (if disease is moderate)
  • Drain the field (except at flowering stage of the crop)
  • Destruction of wild collateral hosts
  • Avoid flow of water from affected fields
  • Grow tolerant varieties (IR 20, TKM 6).
  • Spraying streptomycin sulphate and tetracycline combination 300g +copper oxychloride 1.25 kg/ha.

 

 

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