Horticulture
Horticulture :: Fruits:: Mandarin Orange

           Mandarin Orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco)
Rutaceae

Varieties
Coorg Orange and Kodai Orange are most popular varieties of mango.

Soil and climate
It is a subtropical crop growing at 500– 1500 m above MSL. A rainfall of about 150 cm to 250 cm is required. The winter should be mild and there should be no strong, hot winds during summer. Deep well drained loamy soils are best suited for cultivation. Soil pH should be between 5.5 and 6.5.

Season
The planting is done from November – December.

Planting material
Seedlings and budded plants are useful for planting.

Spacing
Planting is done at a spacing of 6 x 6 m in pits of 75 x 75 x 75 cm size.Planting during May–June and September– October.

Manures and Fertilizers (Apply twice in a year during June and October)

For Palani Hills

Manures & Fertilizers

I year

II year

III year

IV year

V year

VI year onwards

Kg/plant/year

FYM

10.000

15.000

20.000

25.000

25.000

30.000

N

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.400

0.500

0.600

P

0.040

0.080

0.120

0.160

0.160

0.200

K

0.050

0.100

0.200

0.300

0.300

0.400

For Shervaroyan hills (for trees above 6 years old)                

Apply 700:375:600 g/tree of NPK along with VAM (Glomus fasiculatus) @    1 kg/tree.
Manures are to be applied in the basin at 70 cm away from the trunk and incorporated. Apply micronutrients as suggested for sweet orange. Apply agricultural lime or Dolomite at 4 kg/tree during January – February once in 2 – 3 years. This should not be combined with other chemical fertilizers.

Growth regulators
To increase the retention of fruits, spray 2, 4 - D at 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm at flowering and again at Marble stages.

Aftercultivation
Remove water shoots, rootstock sprouts, dead and diseased shoots.  Remove laterals of the main stem up to 45 cm from ground level. Basins should be provided for each tree with gradient slope.

Plant protection
Pests
Leaf miner
Spray Dichlorvos 76 WSC at the rate of 1 ml/lit or Dimethoate 30 EC 1 ml/lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC at the rate of 1.5 ml/lit or 5% of neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) or neem cake extract or neem oil at 3% concentration.

Sucking pests

White fly               

For the control of white fly, spray Quinalphos 25 EC at the rate of 2 ml/lit

Black fly

Spray Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1.5 ml/lit to control black fly

Aphids

Spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Monocrotophos @ 1 ml/lit or neem oil 3 ml/lit or Fish oil resin soap 30 gm/lit or Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit.

Mite

Spray Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/lit or Wettable sulphur 50 WP @ 2 g/lit.

Fruit sucking moth
Destroy Tinospora weed host. Bait with fermented molasses combined with malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit.  Bag the fruits with polythene bags punctured at the bottom. Apply smoke and set up light traps or food lures (pieces of citrus fruits).

Shoot borer
 Prune the withered shoots 4 cm below the dried portions and spray Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or Quinalphos 25 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit or Carbaryl 50 WP @  4 g/lit.

Stem borer
Prune the branches containing grubs. Plugging the fresh holes with cotton soaked in Monocrotophos solution mixed @ 5 ml/20 ml of water will also serve as control.

Fruit fly
Collection and destruction of fallen fruits has to be done. Spray Malathion 50 EC @ 1 ml/lit with 1% crude sugar (10 g/lit). Set up Methyl eugenol 0.1% solution mixed with Malathion 50 EC 0.05% between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m. Use polythene bags fish meal trap with 5 gm of wet fish meal + 1 ml. Dichlorvos in cotton. 50 traps are required/ha, fish meal + Dichlorvos soaked cotton are to be renewed once in 20 and 7 days respectively.

Green scale
Spray Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/lit or Fenthion 100 EC @ 1 ml/lit to control green scale.

Brown scale
For controlling brown scale, spray Monocrotophos 36 WSC @ 1 ml/lit.

Safe waiting period
For Methyl demeton and Monocrotophos – 12 days.

Diseases
Powdery mildew
Apply sulphur dust @ 25 – 30 kg (350 mesh) in the early morning or 3 sprays of Wettable Sulphur 0.5% (or) Bayleton 0.1% - at 15 days interval to protect new flush.

Sooty mould
Spray Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 2ml/ litre. Boil 1 kg Maida or starch with 5 lit of water, cool, dilute to 20 lit and spray.  Avoid spraying during cloudy weather.

Growth regulators
To increase the retention of fruits, spray 2, 4 - D at 20 ppm or NAA 30 ppm at flowering and again at Marble stages.

Harvest
The budded plants starts bearing from 3 – 5 years after planting, while in case of seedlings, it takes about 5-7 years.

Yield
The yield ranges between 15 – 20 t/ha/year.

 
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