Horticulture
Horticulture :: Spice Crops :: Tamarind

Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus L.)
Caesalpiniaceae

Tamarind Tree (Road Side)

Varieties
PKM 1, Urigam, Hasanur,Tumkur Prathisthan, DTS 1, Yogeshwari.

Soil and climate
Grown on variety of soils ranging from poor degraded, eroded, gravelly, saline and alkaline soils. Productivity is higher in red loamy, deep well drained soils. The absolute maximum temperature varies from 36-47.50 C and the absolute minimum temperature varies from 0-17.50 C. Rainfall requirement – 750-1900 mm. Altitude – up to 100 m above MSL.

Season
June – December is found to be optimum.

Propagation
Seeds / Grafts

Nursery: Fresh seeds are sown in nursery beds in March – April. Soaking of seeds in 10 per cent cow urine or in cow dung solution (500 g in 10 l of water) for 24 hours. Two year old seedlings are transplanted to the main field.

Vegetative propagation
Softwood grafting: March- April
Air Layering: Shoots treated with IBA 4000 ppm.

Spacing
8-10m x 8-10m is adopted.

Planting
The grafts should be planted in the pits of 1 m x 1 m x 1 m filled with FYM and top soil.  Add 50 g of Methyl parathion 1.3% dust in the pit. Immediately after planting, support the graft with stakes.

Irrigation
Regular watering should be given once in seven days.

Fertilizers
Apply 200:150:250 g of NPK per tree per year along with 25 kg of FYM and 2 kg of Neem cake.

Aftercultivation

  • Remove the rootstock sprouts.

  • Remove the dried and diseased parts.

  • Intercrops like leguminous crops, short duration vegetables, annual drumstick, sesamum and sorghum may be raised in the alley spaces up to four years.

Training
Early training is necessary to form a high head and uniform scaffold branches in all directions.

Pruning
Removal of dried, diseased and criss cross branches.

Plant protection

Pests
Leaf caterpillar (Achaea janata)
Leaf caterpillar can be controlled by spraying Quinalphos 25 EC 2 ml/lit or Monocrotophos 36 WSC 2 ml/lit.

Storage beetle (Pachymeres gonagra)
Storage bettles can be controlled by spraying Quinalphos 25 EC 1 ml/lit at the time of fruiting season.

Diseases
Powery mildew
Powdery mildew can be controlled by spraying Dinocap 1 g/lit.

Harvest
Plants starts bearing from 4th year onwards and the economic yield will be achieved from 9th year onwards. Pods are harvested in March - April every year. 

Tamarind Pod Tamarind Pod + Pulp


Yield
150 - 200 kg of fruits/tree/year.

Market information

Concentrated pockets of growing districts Dindigul, Theni, Madurai and Trichy
Major markets in Tamil Nadu Madurai, Trichy
Preferred varieties PKM 1, Urigam
 

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