Horticulture :: Vegetables::Soybean

Area of Cultivation
Production of soybean in India (4% of global) at the present time is restricted mainly to Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Maharashtra and Gujarat. It is also grown on a small acreage in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi.

Soybean grows well in warm and moist climate. A temperature of 26.5 to 30°C appears to be the optimum for most of the varieties. Soil temperatures of 15.5°C or above favor rapid germination and vigorous seedling growth. A lower temperature tends to delay the flowering. Day length is the key factor in most of the soybean varieties as they are short day plants. In northern India soybean can be planted from third week of June to first fortnight of July.

Well drained and fertile loam soils with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5
Water logging is also injurious to the crop.

It requires a good seedbed with a reasonable fine texture and not too many clods. Land should be well leveled and be free from crop stubble. One deep ploughing with mould board plough followed by two harrowing or two ploughing with local plough are sufficient. There should be optimum moisture in the field at the time of sowing.

The sowing should be done in lines 45 to 60 cm apart with the help of seed drill or behind the plough. Plant to plant distance should be 4-5 cm. The depth of sowing should not be more than 3-4 cm under optimum moisture conditions. Seed rate of soybean depends upon germination percentage, seed size and sowing time.

Nutrient Management
FYM : 20 tonnes/ha
Fertilizer: 60:20:60 NPK Kg/ha

  • The maturity period ranges from 50 to 140 days depending on the varieties

  • When the plants reach maturity, the leaves turn yellow and drop and soybean pods dry out quickly

  • At harvest, the moisture content of the seeds should be 15 per cent

  • Harvesting can be done by hand, breaking the stalks on the ground level or with sickle

  • Threshing can be done either with the mechanical soybean thresher or some conventional methods. 

Source: http://www.krishisewa.com


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