Non Government Organization - Introduction
A Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by private persons or organizations with no participation or representation of any government. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status insofar as it excludes government representatives from membership in the organization.
A Non-Governmental Organization is an association which
- is based on the common interests of its members, individuals, or institutions
- has no governmental status or function, and
- is not created by a government, nor is its agenda set or implemented by a government.
Here are some functions of Non-Government organizations:
Most large Non-Government agencies are involved in aid and relief.
Other Non-Government Organizations have a major role in developing human resources among minorities by
- delivering services at the local level
- helping community organization
- promoting education, and
- working for intangible benefits such as cultural self-esteem.
Many are especially strong in addressing issues at the community level such as
- adult education
- income generation
- organization of savings and credit societies
- primary health care, or
- small-scale agricultural production.
They may work cooperatively with governments. (Source - http://www.sil.org)
NGOs are referred in many ways
NPOs or Not for profit
VOs or Voluntary Organisations
CSOs or Civil Society Organisations
CBOs or Community Based Organisations
Third Sector Organisations (The other two sectors are state and the market)
(Note : Social Sector professionals define all of them differently. The above similarities are only for lay persons)
Typical Forms of NGOs
These NGOs basically work on advocacy or campaigning on issues or causes. As a focus, they do not implement programmes e.g. PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) works on advocating the cause of Ethical Treatment of Animals. It is not an animal shelter, which many expect.
Consultancy / Research Organisations
These NGOs work on Social and Developmental Research & Consultancy
Training / Capacity Building Organisations
In the NGO Sector, training is usually called as Capacity Building. Some NGOs only work on Capacity Building of the other NGOs
These NGOs provide vital network opportunities for NGOs in a specific field e.g.Association of Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development (AVARD) works on networking of NGOs working in the field of Rural Development
These NGOs are recipients as well as givers e.g. large NGOs like CRY, Concern India receive funds as well as disburse funds. They have a work focus, but instead of implementing projects, they identify projects and monitor, evaluate and build capacities of participating NGOs
These NGOs work directly with the community
e.g. Apnalaya works with the underprivileged in the slums of Govandi directly. Traditionally all Mahila Mandals fall in this category.
These NGOs restrict their focus to cities e.g. AGNI focusses its work in Mumbai City
These NGOs have national presence. In India, very few NGOs are national level.
e.g. CRY, Pratham, Concern India
These are part of an International NGOs e.g. CARE (www.care.org/ ) India is an integral part of CARE's global operations. Like mother NGOs, these NGOs receive and disburse grants
They are not typically terms as NGOs. These are formed by beneficiery communities, typically women who come together in a group of 10 plus. India is witnessing a great movement of SHGs presently and these women are transforming the Rural Andhra Pradesh and Rual Tamil Nadu
Large percentage of NGO Funding goes to religious based Organisations. e.g. Siddhivinayak Trust in Mumbai