| | | | | | | | |
 

 
TNAU Agritech Portal :: Success Stories
     
 

HORTICULTURE

Watermelon cultivation through precision farming – An experience 


An Expeience of Precisiom Farming in Turmeric Cultivation


Precision farming – An experience in Tomato Production

Bountiful harvest:Tissue culture banana cultivation

Record Break:Continuing success of precision farming in Tamil Nadu

Growing muskmelon as precision crop is highly profitable

Dramatic change by Dynamic Market Information

Rosemary shows the way to keep wild animals at bay

Rumani mango: a farmer's efforts bear fruit

Drip fertigation boosts yield in banana cultivation

Contract farming of Coleus forskholii

Micro-irrigation ideal for jasmine cultivation

Eco-friendly methods to boost onion yield

High yielding amla for high density planting

Agro-Astro for Success

Green Gold- Bamboo

Drip Revolation - A Granny's Out look

Cucumber – The Promising Crop

Higher income through intercropping – Pineapple in Mango & Coconut

The hill crop – pepper, thrives well in plains too

Red Banana - Promising income

Drumstick production

No cost pandal

An income yielding, slow drying flower - Ixora

Profit in lakhs

Rose cultication in open fields

Thulasi – A Helping Hand

Unending Drip and Unfailing Rewards

Welcome Lablab

Wonder in system of rice intensification- to bags from 1acre! Are you ready for the kuruvai challenge

An Experience of Precision Farming in Turmeric Cultivation

Watermelon cultivation through precision farming – An experience

 


Watermelon cultivation through precision farming – An experience    

            
I have practiced the precision farming in watermelon in last year (2009). I would like to share the experience of watermelon cultivation.
I have cultivated watermelon in 2.2 hectares of my land through precision farming drip irrigation system. I used Numhems company’s Pukeeza variety in one hectare of land and in remaining one hectare of land I cultivated Apoorva variety of Seminis Company’s.

Cultivation Practices

In the beginning stage of cultivation, I ploughed the land twice per month and applied farm yard manure at the rate of 2 loads per hectare. Then ploughed the land to get good tilth. Before last ploughing, applied 6 bags of D.A.P.+ 3 bags of Potash. After leveling the land, I digged a small canal and placed lateral pipes above the canal. Fixed at the rate of 1 lateral pipe per 5 feet and Irrigated for few minutes. Then, sowed one seed at every place of dripper.

I got loan from Bank for one hectare and remaining capital spent by myself to install drip system. For that, horticulture department gave 258 Kg of Potassium Nitrate fertilizer. From the day of transplanting, I gave 5 Kg potassium Nitrate + 5 Kg Urea through drip irrigation at three days interval.

After 15 days of planting, I have removed the weeds by engaging labourers. First weeding done at 3 Days after planting. Then, made a pit near every plant. Mixed 4 bags of potash + 4 bags of Urea and placed evenly into every pit and closed. I adjusted the lateral pipes properly to irrigate over the pit. After 35 days of planting, applied 3 bags of 150 Kg Calcium ammonium Nitrate and irrigate the field evenly by the drippers. Second hand weeding done at 40th day of planting. After 30th day and 40th day of planting, applied 10 liters of Humic acid evenly by the drip irrigation. In between this practice, I applied Potassium Nitrate + Urea at the rate of 5 KG/ha at three days of interval.

  1. Sprayed Tata-Rogger @3ml/lit. at 12th day after planning by using hand pump.
  2. Then, sprayed Endosulfan @3ml/lit. and Imida Chloride @1ml/2lit at 19th day after planting by using hand pump.
  3. After 25th day of planting,

 Endosulfan @3ml/lit.
Imida Chloride @1ml/2lit.
Humic acid @3ml/lit.
Fantac @ 5ml/16 lit.  sprayed   by using the hand pump.

  1. 33 days after planting,

Trizophos @5ml/lit.
Voltage(Flora) @ 10ml/tank
Humic Acid @ 3ml/lit
Spic Sytozyme 3ml/lit.  sprayed by using the hand pump.

  1. 40 day after planting

Trizophos @ 5ml/lit.
Chlopyriphos @5ml/lit.
Siaptron @ 2ml/lit. sprayed by using sprayer.

  1. 50 day after planting

Voltage(Flora) @ 10ml/tank
Biovita @ 5 ml/lit.
Trizophos @ 5 ml/lit. sprayed by using sprayer.
Cost of Cultivation

1

Ploughing – 7 ploughs

Rs.10,000

2

Farm Yard Manure- 4 loads

Rs.4,000

3

D.A.P. Fertilizer -10 bags               

Rs.5,000

4

Potash Fertilizer-7 bags

Rs.1,645

5

Urea Fertilizer-7 bags         

Rs.1,820

6

Calcium Ammonium Nitrate- 3 bags

Rs.2,250

7

First hand weeding 

Rs.1,600

8

Second hand weeding        

Rs.2,000

9

Forming ridges        

Rs.  600

10

Spraying pesticides            

Rs.13,660

11

Labour cost for spraying

Rs. 3,000

 

Total                                

Rs.45,575

(Included the cost of 258 Kg Potassium Nitrate was given by horticulture department)
Income

 

 

 

 

Nunhems Pukeeza variety watermelon /1 hectare of land
At first harvest got 55 tones of watermelon and
I sold this at Rs.3100/ton  55*3100           

Rs.1,70,500

 

At second harvest got 6 tonnes of watermelon
and I sold this at Rs.1000/ton 6*1000                 

Rs.6000

 

Total

Rs.1,76,500

 

Seminis Apoorva Variety watermelon/1.2 hectare of land
At first harvest got 61 tonnes of watermelon and  I sold at Rs.3100/ton 61*3100         

 

Rs.1, 89,100

 

At second harvest got 4 tonnes of watermelon and      sold this at Rs. 1000/ton 4*1000                                                 

Rs.4,000

 

Total              

 Rs.1, 93,100

                                                 
Income from 2.2 hectares of land totally  - Rs.1, 76,500 + Rs. 1, 93,100 = Rs.3, 69,600        
Expenditure                                                                                       =Rs.45,575        
Net income                                                                                        =Rs. 3, 24,025        
                                                        
Contact Address:
C.Muruga Perumal
S/o V.M. Chinnappan
Veppurchekkadi
Thandarampathu(T.K.)
Thiruvannamalai District-606706
Ph.No. 90479990521


AN EXPERIENCE OF PRECISION FARMING IN TURMERIC CULTIVATION

Theeran chinnamalai Precision farming farmer’s welfare association,
Pullagoundan pudur,
Devarayapuram village,
Thondamuthur Union,
Coimbatore district.

We used to practice conventional farming in our lands. Before one year we have attended precision farming training conducted by the extension department of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. We came to know the details of precision farming and decided to start the cultivation in the precision farming. Then we approached the Horiculture Department and they advised us to follow the precision farming as a group to get high profit . So we formed a group with 21 members and practiced precision farming in 20 hectares of land in 2009 January. we planned to cultivate small onion, tomato, brinjal, cauliflower, chillies and turmeric in the Drip irrigation system. We visited to Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri where the precision farming is being practiced successfully. There we visited to fields and discussed with precision farming farmers got detailed information about precision farming from their experience. Then we cultivated crops with the help of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Horticulture Department .We conducted meetings every Wednesday to discuss about the cultivation practices and techniques. We followed the precision farming techniques like drip irrigation, Fertigation, farming with less work load etc.

I’’m A.Rajamani, a young farmer of precision farming group. I practiced precision farming in turmeric and I would like to share my experience of turmeric cultivation.
I sowed the turmeric rhizomes after plouhging the land well.  I also grew onion, coriander, chillies and redgram as intercrops. In precision farming, plants grew well without much competition of weeds. I got high yield by using sufficient water and fertilizers at correct time. Also, I got good quality farm produce from this cultivation. Particularly onion fetch high price in markets because of same size and good quality.  Retailers Came to field to take the produce directly. I got high profit of Rs. 9,60,000 per hectare in one year in turmeric cultivation. I got this huge profit because of shifting conventional cultivation into precision farming. We all the farmers of our group decided to follow precision farming in the forthcoming years. For that, preparatory works are going on.

At the present critical situation of farming, this type of good schemes will help farmers to get success in farming. Especially young farmers can follow this type of good schemes to lead a better profitable farming.

Cost of Cultivation

S.No.

Particulars

Cost

1.

Drip irrigation instatllation
Total cost:
Govt.Subsidy:

Rs.1,10,000
Rs.28,500

Rs.81,500

2.

Land Preparation
9 Ploughs:
5 Ploughs:
Forming ridges:

Rs.3,000
Rs.2,450
Rs.900

Rs.6,350

3.

Basal fertilizer
Farm Yard Manure:
D.A.P                       :

Rs.30,000
Rs.2,430

Rs.32,430

4.

Seeds and seedlings
Turmeric seed:
Onion:
Coriander:
Chillies:

Rs.25,000
Rs.20,000
Rs.100
Rs.300                                      

Rs.45,400

5.

Transplanting
Turmeric:
Onion:
Coriander:
Chillies:

Rs.2,000
Rs.2,800
Rs.200
Rs.300

Rs.5,300

6.

Weed control
Weedicide:
Spraying cost:
Hand weeding:

Rs.1,700
Rs.800
Rs.3,000

Rs.5,500

7.

Pest and disease management:
Onion:
Turmeric:

Rs.7,500
Rs.2,100

Rs.9,600

8.

Top dressing
For Onion 10 times
For turmeric 10 times

Rs.15,000
Rs.20,000

Rs.35,000

9.

Irrigation
 Approximately 200 days

Rs.20,000

 

Rs.20,000

10.

Harvesting
Turmeric
Onion
Coriander
Chillies
Redgram

Rs.17,700
Rs.12,500
Rs.500
Rs.2,000
Rs.500

 

Rs.33,200

11.

Processing
Onion storage
Turmeric boiling
Turmeric Polishing

Rs.2,500
Rs.17,500
Rs.5,000

Rs.25,000

12.

Farming expenses
Land leasing
Land tax
Electric motor protection
Power protection

Rs.25,000
Rs.120
Rs.10,000
Rs.1,000

Rs.36,120

 

 

           Total

Rs.3,35,400

13.

Income
Coriander leaves
Coriander seeds
Onion
Green Chillies
Red Chillies
Red gram
Turmeric

Rs.2,000
Rs.7,500
Rs. 2.47,000
Rs.24,000
Rs.1,500
Rs.7,500
Rs.10,12,500

Rs.13,02,000

14.

Net Profit
Total Income
Total Expenses

Rs.13,02,000
Rs.3,35,400

Rs.9,66,600

 


 

Precision farming – An experience in Tomato Production

I am practicing precision farming in 2.5 acres for the past four years. I would like to share the experience I have gained through tomato cultivation.

Nursery Preparation: Firstly I have selected U.S.618 tomato variety for cultivation in my own land being 100 portrays provided by the TNAU. The portrays were filled with cocoa peat, and one seed was place in each pit. Then the portrays were arranged one over the other with 10 in one pile and covered with tarpolene inorder to avoid aeration. After three days the covering was removed and the portrays were place separately in shade. Watering was done by using rose cane both in morning & evening regularly. The seedling were ready for transplantation in twenty days.

Land Preparation : Primary village with 5 ploughs for 3 times were done. Farmyard  Manure@ 4+ and poultry Manure@ 2t were applied incorporation & Manure was done. Bed size & 4 feet breadth were formed and drip laterals were set and for irrigation was done for 10 hours. When the beds were fully wet, planting was done with a spacing of 60 x 60 cm. Irrigation was alone for 1 hour and 15mls daily and federation  on every 3rd day  with 19-19-19, 13-00-45, and 12-61-00 and urea was given. Weeding was done after 20th and 40th day. After first weeding 8kg of ferodan was done by earthling up. During second weeding 100kg of Neam cake was applied. Staking of tomato and timely pesticide application was done. The crop was ready for harvest on 70th day.

Harvest: The harvested produce were graded and marketed in M.G.R.Market, Coimbatore. About 1600 kg(40t) of tomato was sold @ Rs.320-550/25kg of produce.

Economics:
Expenditure: Land Preparation         -           Rs.2,000
                        Fym                         -           Rs.4,000
                        Bed formation           -           Rs.3,250
                        Fertilizer                   -           Rs.25,000
                        Particides                 -           Rs.10,250
                        Labour cost               -           Rs.26,000
                        Rope                         -           Rs.5,000
                        Stalks, & wires           -           Rs.8,000

Other labour cost        -           Rs.7,500
                                              __________
Total                            -           Rs.91,000
                                              __________

Income: First & second quality 1600 kg                    -           Rs.4,51,000
                                                         Expenditure    -           Rs.   91,000
                                                                                            __________
                                                       Net income      -           Rs. 3,60,000
                                                                                             __________

Specialties: The specialties of the precision farming includes, friability of soil and better aeration and sunlight penetration in the crop canopy enhances the crop growth, at the same time weed growth is less due to spot application of fertilizer in root zone. Even In the widst of adverse climate, crop production can be done with precision farming technologies.

Hence, I request the farmers so adopt the precision farming technologies so gain more yield and income. I sincerely thank the scientist & Tamil Nadu Agricultural University for introducing the precision farming technology.

Contact details: M.k.Sathyam, S/o.Kullugounder, Molganur(PO), Pappirettipatti(TK), Dharmapuri (DT)
Pincode – 636 904, Phone: 9788318509.


 

Bountiful harvest:Tissue culture banana cultivation

Farmer in his banana field

Banana cultivation has always taken a back seat in crop preference in Tamil Nadu as only a few farmers are bold enough to grow the crop in large areas. Though there are many reasons such as strong winds (the plant falls down during strong winds), heavy rainfall or monsoon failure attributed to this, absence of proper marketing channels appears to be the main reason for many farmers to move away from banana crops. But farmers of Theni, Chinnamanur, and Uthamapalayam regions of Tamil Nadu have a different story to tell. They grow the crop in a minimum of 2-3 acres and are fully satisfied with the returns. These farmers mainly grow tissue cultured (TC) Grand Naine banana variety.

Grand Naine is popular because it has a relatively good shelf life, is an attractive golden yellow in colour at maturity and is internationally acceptable, both as a fresh fruit and in processed form, according to Mr. S. Narayanan, Vice President, Marketing, Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd, Coimbatore .With an initial investment of Rs. 80,000-85,000 per acre these farmers get a yield of 38-40 tonnes per acre which amounts to Rs. 1,50,000-1,60,000 per acre as gross income and a net income of Rs.70,000 -75,000 per acre annually.

Farmers are advised to go in for two ratoons, which gives them a net income of about Rs. 1 lakh each, per acre. Thus in about 27-30 months, with intensive cultivation, farmers can get a net income of Rs. 2.25 to 2.50 lakhs per acre, according to Mr. Narayanan. “The TC planting material costs Rs. 12 per plant from us and we make sure that it is delivered at the farmer’s site anywhere within Tamil Nadu. The cost of establishing drip irrigation system in an acre comes to Rs. 20,000 -25,000 which can be recovered in the first crop itself,” said Narayanan.

Planting distance
The field must be ploughed well and furrows formed six feet apart, and planting should be done at a distance of 5-6 feet apart in each furrow. Planting is done at a depth of six inches in the furrows. Required quantities of organic manure, 5 gms of phorate and 200 gm neem cake are applied in each pit. Watering immediately and thereafter is done through drip irrigation. Fertigation starts from 10th day onwards and a detailed fertigation schedule is provided to each farmer, he said. The plants are earthed up twice till up to the 75th day up to a height of 1.5 to 2 feet from the ground level.  All these farmers have adapted well to the use of in-line system of drip irrigation, which provides a kind of strip wetting all along the plant row directing the root growth along the wet area. With the tendency of banana roots to grow as long as 1.00 metre and more, quite early, strip wetting helps in feeding the roots better, which in turn gets converted into active plant growth and performance, explained Narayanan.

Ratoon management
Keeping the field and neighborhood free of weeds generally is advised to avoid spread of infestations. Though the TC plants, which are supplied are generally healthy and virus free, field contamination can be avoided only by keeping the field free of weeds. Ratoon management is important for sustained income. In a place like Theni, three ratoons have been done in 24-25 months. Once the flowers emerge and all the fruits have fully opened, the bunches are covered using a “skirting bag” which prevents the tender fruits from insect attack, besides maintaining uniform temperature inside. “This is important for colour and fruit development,” he said.

Value addition
The farmers have also standardized the harvesting and packing methods locally, according to Mr. Narayanan. This value addition has a ready market in metros like Chennai and Kochi besides Coimbatore, Madurai, and other markets in Kerala. The price realization is quite high (at present the fruits are sold for about Rs. 10 - 11 per kg at Koyambedu market in Chennai). The farmers have already sent consignments to Mumbai and Kolkata.

Word of caution
But Mr. Narayanan has a word of caution for those interested in growing this variety, suggesting visit the farmers’ fields at Theni, Chinnamanur, Uthamapalayam to get first hand information. With Indian agriculture, particularly, horticulture, set for a take off, and with retail chains showing interest, the future looks bright especially for grand naine banana cultivators.

Contact details: Mr. S. Narayanan, Vice President-Marketing can be contacted at Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd, New No. 126 - West Ponnurangam Road, R.S Puram, Coimbatore- 641-002, email: narayanan@jains.com, phone: 0422-2540365, mobile: 94433-16061.


Record Break:Continuing success of precision farming in Tamil Nadu

Mr. Chinnasamy of Tamil Nadu with his harvested brinjals

.

New innovations and technologies for increasing crop yield have mostly been the fort of agricultural scientists and researchers. Precision Farming Technology is one such innovationthat has been introduced for the first time in the country by scientists from the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore. Precision farming promises to increase the yield of crops, and practically any crop variety can be cultivated under this system.

Very popular
Presently this project is meeting with large success in many districts of Tamil Nadu. Those farmers, already under this project, have surrendered their success in terms of yield and marketing to this technology.Unlike certain other technologies which teach or guide the farmer to grow his cropsbut leave himto market hisown produce, precision technology scientists stay with the farmers right from sowing the seeds to marketing the produce.

Marketing made easy
The research team identifies prospective buyers in and around the area andbinds the farmer and the buyer in a sort of contract agreement, and oversees the entire operation. Mr. P.M. Chinnasamy is one such precision farmer from Somenahalli village who has earned more than Rs. 5 lakh from his brinjal crop grown in 120 cents in about 11 months.

“A progressive farmer can get only 60 tonnes per hectare whereas Mr. Chinnasamy has harvested about 170 tonnes in 120 cents, which is quite a feat. “It is 467 per cent higher than the conventional system of cultivation,” said Dr. Vadivel, Director of Extension Education, and TNAU. Giving details he said, the seeds were sown in protrays raised under shade net and transplanted on the 35th day after sowing.

Field preparation
The field was prepared by using chisel plough first, followed by disc and cultivatorsfour times. Before last ploughing, a basal dose of 700 kg of super phosphate, 25 tonnes offarmyard manure along with Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria each at 2 kg per hectare was applied.
Raised beds of 60 cm width were formed and the seedlings planted on the centre of the raised beds at a spacing of 45 cm.

Wastage avoided
Under the conventional system 23,000 plants are required for planting.But, forprecision farming system, only 14,500 plants are required. Fertilizers were given only through fertigation, which avoids wastage through flood irrigation. All water soluble fertilizers were applied based on the time and the stage of the crop.
The plant growth was found to be good,and thiscontinued till the last harvest. Due to the continuous growth and flowering, harvesting was done once in two days. The flowering is mainly due to continuous supply of fertigation and constant absorption of nutrients.

Extended crop life
Brinjal is a six month crop but under precision farming the duration can be extended up to one year. It is an advantage over the traditional system since the extension of harvest increases the productivity, according to Dr. I. Muthuvel, Assistant Professor, Horticulture of the University. The main pests were fruit borer that was controlled effectively spraying monocrotophos or chloripyriphos at 2 ml per litre of water, and in later stages Indoxacarb at 0.5 ml per litre of water, according to Dr. Muthuvel.

Attractive fruits
Diseases such as blight and fruit rot were controlled by spraying mancozeb at 2 ml per litre of water. The fruits are quite attractive and the shelf life is more compared to that grown under conventional system. Mr. Chinnasamy has so far harvested 170 tonnes and has sold them for Rs. 5 -15 a kg.

Contact details: Dr. I. Muthuvel, Assistant Professor (Horticulture), TNAU, Coimbatore, email: muthu_hort@yahoo.co.in, mobile: 9443715948 and Mr. P. M. Chinnasamy, Somenahalli, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu.


Growing muskmelon as precision crop is highly profitable

 


More yield: The farmer Mr. C. Boopathy of Dharmaputi district in Tamil Nadu has harvested about 45 tonnes of fruit from an hectare.

Muskmelon is a fruit crop cultivated widely by farmers in our country particularly during the summer season. The fruit is used for making sherbets and desserts which have a cooling effect on the body. Though it is mainly a summer crop it is now being cultivated throughout the year in Tamil Nadu, thanks to the Precision Farming technology from the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu.

Mr. C. Boopathy, a beneficiary farmer of the precision farming technology (PFT) in Morappur village of Dharmapuri district in Tamil Nadu has grown musk melon in his one hectare farm.

Net profit
“I had spent about Rs. 90,000 as cultivation cost and was able to get a gross income of Rs. 3,60,000. Deducting the expense I have earned a net profit of Rs. 2,70,000 solely from musk melon,” he says.
The seedlings are raised in protrays which are filled with cocopeat and grown in a shade net nursery under protected condition. They are ready for transplanting in the main field on 12th day of sowing, according to him.

Healthy plants
The root growth is excellent when the seedlings are grown in protrays and the seedlings are resistant to pests and diseases. All the plants are uniform, healthy and the portrays can be easily taken to the main field for transplanting, according to Dr. E. Vadivel, Director, Extension Education, TNAU.
About 20,000 seedlings are required for planting in one hectare. The field was readied using a chisel plough and disc (once) and then by cultivators, four times (with the help of a tractor). Then the seedlings were planted on raised beds of 1x4 feet (one foot height and four feet wide beds). About 25 tonnes of farm yard manure (FYM), 2 kg of biofertilizers such as Azospirillum or Phosphobacteria and 470 kg of super phosphate were applied (for one hectare) as a basal application before the last ploughing. Water soluble fertilizers were applied through fertigation pipes (similar to drip irrigation pipes) which avoid water wastage. The fertilizer application is done based on the time and the stage of the crop. Unlike crops grown under the conventional system, precision crops come to harvest at an earlier stage. For example, this melon was harvested on the 65th day after planting.

Uniform fruit growth
Under normal practices harvesting can be done after the 75th day after planting. In addition there are more number of flowers in the plant and the fruit growth is also uniform, according to Dr. R.I. Muthuvel, Assistant Professor, Horticulture. Also, the fruits can be harvested in a single harvest unlike conventional system where 3-4 harvests are required. Major pests affecting the crop are beetles, white flies and fruit borers. Beetles and white flies can be controlled by spraying 2gms of Carboryl or 0.5 gms of Acetamopride diluted in one litre of water. Spraying 2 ml of Trizophos or 2gm of Thiodicarb or Methomil in one litre of water is found effective for the control of fruit borers.
The fruit weight is also more compared fetches a good price in the market due to higher sweet content and shelf life, according to Dr. Muthuvel.

“I was able to harvest two fruits from a single vine he said. Each fruit weighed 1.25 - 1.5 kg. About 45 tonnes of fruit was harvested from a hectare and sold at Rs. 5 to 12 a kg,” said Mr. Boopathy.

Contact details : Dr. I. Muthuvel, Assistant Professor, Horticulture, TNAU, Coimbatore: 641 003, Tamil Nadu, mobile: 94437-15948 and Mr. C. Boopathy, Morappur village, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu.


Dramatic change by Dynamic Market Information

When the sun rises, whatever we decide for market price is the actual market price was our daily assumption. But when we came to know about the Dynamic Market Information though the scientist of the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, out attitude has dramatically changed and we got confidence in marketing.

Myself Mr.Samikannu, from molayanur Village of Dharmapuri district, feel proud to be a precision farmer. I am practicing agriculture for the past 25 years. I was growing vegetables and tuber crops and selling the same to the local farmers at low cost since I was not aware of market information’s like where to sell? When to sell? and how to sell at what price for which quality products.

Since, 2005-2006, the profit realized in Agriculture is high only due to the introduction of Precision Farming by Tamil Nadu Agricultural University the Major technologies  learnt through precision farming like tillage practices, hybrid varieties, need based fertilizer application drip fustigation, post harvesting technologies, labour reduction, crop production based on consumer preference, transport facilities, marketing through farmers association, played a major role.

Marketing: We were selling a kilo of tomato for Rs,3-5 in local markets, but through the introduction of Dynamic Market Information by scientist & Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, we are selling the same produce for Rs.10-20 and earning a profit of Rs.15/kg. The annual profit of few thousands turned to 2-5 lakhs. All these are due to selfless efforts tendered by the scientist of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University and Dynamic Market Information.

In future:

  • Contract farming in vegetables
  • Contract farmers association
  • Daily transportation facility like milk van
  • Deposition of amount in individuals account
  • Crop production based on consumer preference
  • Introduction of other state markets are some of the facilities needed for the upliftment of our social status

We express our heartfelt thanks to the scientist of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University for introducing Dynamic Market Information & precision farming

Contact details : V.Samikannu , 9788318950.


Rosemary shows the way to keep wild animals at bay

 



Saved by scent: Mrs. Puttiyamma, tribal lady farmer of Bargur hills in
Erode district of Tamil Nadu in her Rosemary field.

Experiencing unexpected losses in agriculture due to adverse climate or pest attack is a common feature in the life of farmers. Even the best technologies fail when they have to gamble with adverse climate. The problem is all the more acute for those living in hilly regions bordering reserve forest areas.

Crop and life loss
Because apart from the vagaries of climate, farmers also have to keep track of movements of wild animals in their fields which cause sudden and disastrous loss both to the crops and sometimes to human lives.
Mrs. Puttiyamma, is a tribal lady farmer of Bargur hills in Erode district of Tamil Nadu who has successfully proved that all the above stated facts are not a deterrent when it comes to growing crops in the hills and successfully marketing them.

Casual jobs
Mrs. Puttiyamma owns about 4 acres of land and is presently growing Rosemary in about half an acre. “I was growing ragi and double beans and reaped only a minimum margin. With no alternative I was forced to seek other casual jobs to meet my family’s basic needs. “It was then that I heard from sources in my village about MYRADA KVK (Mysore Resettlement and Development Agency Krishi Vigyan Kendra) which has been encouraging farmers in our area to grow Rosemary (an aromatic herb) and are also helping them to market the produce through the Rosemary Group (created mainly for farmers growing Rosemary),” she explained.

She has joined in the Rosemary Growers Group three years ago and started cultivating the crop. Rosemary thrives well both in irrigated and dry land conditions and is not disturbed and grazed by any wild animal because of its aroma. As it is a perennial crop there is no need for investing money for seeds and land preparation every year and the crop provides a stable income.

Income details
Mrs. Puttiyamma has so far harvested about 2,898 kg of fresh leaves and has earned about Rs.11.00 per kg of fresh leaves in the past three years.
“I have so far earned about Rs.31,878 in 3 years from 1/2 an acre of land under rainfed condition whereas the returns from rest 3.5 acres of Ragi crop and beans have been only Rs.17,500. My income kindled the interest of other farmers who also started growing the crop,” she said.

Oil extraction unit
As there has been an increase in the number of farmers who have taken up Rosemary cultivation the District Rural Development Agency, Erode, has funded for establishment of an oil extraction unit nearby.
The unit has reduced the herbage loss during transport and has been able to increase the income to about Rs.2,000 per acre besides providing employment to the rural youth.
The tribals of this region were mainly growing crops such as ragi, double beans, turmeric and some fruit varieties. But due to constant incursion by wild animals from the bordering reserve forests many of them were not able to succeed in their farming operations, explained, Mr. P. Alagesan, Programme Co-ordinator, Myrada Krishi Vigyan Kendra.

Aromatic crops
“When some of the tribals approached us for guidance our team visited the area and after careful study realized that aromatic crops can be safely grown there as the climate is cool and favourable and also the fragrance emanating from these aromatic plants will keep the wild animals at bay,” he said.

The tribals were made to interact with officials of the HOPE IN NILGRIS organization in Udhagamandalam who were already pioneers in the cultivation and promotion of Rosemary crop. After the exposure visit, the farmers showed more interest and involvement in the cultivation of Rosemary. Mrs. Puttiyamma was conferred the ‘Velanmai Chemmal’ award by the TNAU in 2006. At present more than 100 acres of the hilly region have come under this crop cultivation. Information and training to the tribals were arranged by Myrada-KVK.

Contact details : P. Alagesan, Programme Co-ordinator, Myrada Krishi Vigyan Kendra, No- 57 - Bharathi Street, Gobichettipalayam - 638 452, Erode district Tamil Nadu, e-mail : myradakvk@dataone.in, website: www.myradakvk.org, Phone : 04285 226694, 226695.


Rumani mango: a farmer's efforts bear fruit

Mr. Veerabhadran, a mango farmer in Mampakkam village in Tamil Nadu in his orchard.


MANGO IS a biennial bearer. The tree gives good yield in the first year, which slightly declines in the ensuing year.
Though the tree grows well in a variety of soils, with proper fertilizer applications and good irrigation techniques, the tree can be made to bear fruits every year. Mr. P. Veerabhadran, a farmer from Mampakkam village, Chengalpattu district, Tamil Nadu is a mango farmer who has planted both Banganapalli and Rumani mango varieties in his 0.7 hectares land.

Water shortage
"A decade back I was growing crops such as paddy and vegetables," he said. "Because of severe water shortage and successive monsoon failures I lost a major portion of my crop. "To overcome this problem, I thought of planting alternative crops, which would require less water unlike paddy and decided to plant mango in my field.
At present I have about 250 Banganapalli and 400 Rumani varieties planted in my field. Both the varieties are able to fetch me a tidy income every year," he said.

Growing intercrops
"For the first four years after planting the mango seedlings, I grew a variety of intercrops such as vegetables and groundnuts to supplement income. After harvest the intercrops were ploughed into the soil as green manure," he said. The fruits were plucked only from the fifth year. He had procured the grafts from a local farm and had planted them at a spacing of about 6 feet in straight lines. Before planting, the land was ploughed well by mixing rotten farmyard manure. About 3 cubic m pits were dug and three-fourth of each pit was filled with about 20 kg of farmyard manure. The mango seedlings were planted in a way that the grafted portion was above the soil surface and the pits were closed with sand and irrigated. Irrigation was mainly done from a tube well and the young seedlings were irrigated once every 5 days. After 3 years of planting, irrigation was done once every 15 days, according to Mr. Veerabhadran.

Regular manuring
The trees were regularly manured during August-September every year with liberal quantities of well rotten farmyard manure and neem cake. Other common practices required for mangoes such as pruning the shoots below the grafted portion, weeding and ploughing the interspaces were also done. For the first 3-4 years the trees were not allowed to flower and if flowering was noticed it was removed manually, Mr. Veerabhadran explained. To protect the trees from pests such as fruit fly and fruit borer, the farmer adopted an indigenous plant protection method. A paste made from the leaves of Neem, Adathoda, Pungai, Nochi, and Perandai (Tamil names) was soaked in cow's urine for 15-20 days. After 15 days the solution was filtered and then diluted in water (1ml of the paste in 10 ml of water) and sprayed over the crown of the trees.

Panchagavya spray
The fruits were allowed to ripen from the fifth year of planting. When the trees started flowering in the fifth year, liberal quantities of diluted Panchgavya were sprayed over the crown, and on the trunks of the trees. Farmyard manure and powdered neem cake were added around the base at a distance of about two feet of the tree trunk in circular pits during the monsoon, explained Mr. Veerabhadran.

Total expenditure
"I had spent about Rs 15,000 per hectare for growing, harvesting the intercrops, tree maintenance, and labour. I am expecting a harvest of 8-10 tonnes of Rumani fruits this year," he said. Rumani mangoes come to the market usually at the end of the mango season and fetch a good price when most of the other varieties lapse.

Contact details: Mr. P. Veerabhadran, Mampakkam village, Kanchipuram district, Chengalpattu taluka, Tamil Nadu 600-048, phone: 044-27479090.


Contract farming of Coleus forskholii gaining popularity

CONTRACT FARMING of Coleus forskholii is gaining popularity among small and marginal farmers of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu. Coleus forskholii is a short term medicinal plant. The suckers of the plant contain an ingredient called Forskholin, which is used in the preparation of several ayurvedic medicines.
In India, about 2,500 tonnes of Coleus forskholii are cultivated annually. The crop is widely grown in Gujarat, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Coleus forskholii is known as Marundu koorkan in Tamil, Coleus in English, Padarsoor in Hindi and Magandhiperu in Kannada.

Less water requirement

The crop is not water intensive and needs to be irrigated only once in 10 days. Therefore, it can be grown in an area, where water availability is not abundant. The plants grow to a height of 2-3 cms. The sucker resembles a carrot in shape and is light yellow in colour. The ideal seasons for growing this crop are June-July and September-October.

Profitable crop
"It is an easy to grow and a profitable crop for the farmers," said Mr. C. Perumal, retired agricultural officer and coordinator for more than 30 farmers who are growing this crop in Kanchipuram district. The planting material (suckers) and technical guidance along with a cash advance are given by the concerned agency, which promotes the crop. The contract procedures are quite simple, and the market is well assured. Mr. Perumal explained. The plant grows well in a variety of soils. Being a hardy crop, free from any major pest and diseases, it can be grown with minimum care and investment.

Mr. Chinnapayan, a progressive farmer of Musarawakkam village in Kanchipuram district, has been growing Coleus forskholii in his 1.5 hectares for the past three years. About 1,00,000 suckers have been planted in his 1.5 hectares land. Giving details on the planting technique Mr. Perumal explained, before planting the suckers, about 40 tonnes of rotten farmyard manure, three bags of DAP (Di-ammonium-phosphate) and six bags of neem cake were applied and the field was ploughed into furrows and irrigated.

Spacing details
The suckers were then planted at a spacing of about 2 cm on the furrows in a straight line. Irrigation was done on the third day after planting and continued once every 10 days. Three side dressings of about 60 kg of potash and 100 kg of vermicompost were applied on the 45th, 90th and 135th day of planting. "Farmers are advised to tighten the soil around the roots of the plant every time when the side dressing is done," Mr. Perumal said.

Weeding time
Weeding has to be done once every 25 days and as required. Though the crop is quite resistant to pest infestations, Mr. Chinnapayan's crop was found to have been infested with leaf mosaic virus.
To control this infestation, he was advised to spray Bavistin 500 gms diluted in 200 litres of water twice in the mornings, according to Perumal.

Harvesting schedule
The crop comes to harvest in about six months after planting and from one hectare about 12 tonnes of coleus suckers can be harvested. Fresh suckers are sold at the rate of Rs. 4.50 per kg. Mr. Chinnapayan said, "I have spent about Rs. 25,000, which includes cultivation, fertilizer and harvesting cost and am expecting a gross income of about Rs.55,000.""After deducting the cultivation expenses, I am expecting a net income of about Rs.30,000 ," he said.

Contact details: Mr. C. Perumal at 99940-91891 and Mr. Chinnapayan at Musarawakkam village, Kanchipuram district, 631-502, Tamil Nadu.


Drip fertigation boosts yield in banana cultivation

 



Mr. Venkatesan, banana farmer of Dharmapuri having a look at his crop, which is ready for harvest.

Research at the Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, have implemented state sponsored precision farming through drip fertigation project in Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu. The project costs Rs.10 crore and covers about 400 hectares in the districts. This project is a boon to all farmers in these two districts who have been cultivating vegetables such as tomato, bhendi and cavendish banana varieties.

Equal weight
All the crops attain uniform height and fruits and vegetables attain equal weight when grown under fertigation system (application of water soluble fertilizer through drip irrigation), according to Dr. I. Muthuvel, Assistant Project Officer, Tamil Nadu Precision Farming Project, Dharmapuri.

The technology, in addition to conserving water, has also helped in good growth of the crops, according to Mr. M. Venkatesan, a beneficiary farmer in the district who is at present cultivating G-9 cavendish banana variety in his one hectare land. About 25 hectares are at present under banana cultivation in Dharmapuri district, according to Dr. Muthuvel.

Saving water
"Precision farming has helped me obtain uniform banana bunches with even ripening and saved as much as 50 per cent water compared with the conventional system where water was allowed to flow in furrows in the fields," said Mr. Venkatesan. Giving details on field preparation, Mr. Venkatesan said, about 2 kg of super phosphate, 200 gm of gypsum, 20 gm of furidon and 5 kg of farmyard manure were applied to the field and ploughed well. Raised beds of about one foot in height were prepared. Cubical pits of about 2 cubic feet were dug on the raised beds and the suckers were placed inside the pit and covered with soil and watered immediately. Fertigation was done once every five days. About 3,000 suckers are needed for planting in one hectare, according to Mr. Venkatesan.

After two months of planting, emerging side suckers were manually removed. Side suckers have to be removed as and when noticed. Only one side sucker can be allowed to grow in the eighth month and the rest removed, explained Dr. Muthuvel. In the seventh month, stakes were tied to the trees to prevent them from falling due to heavy wind or rains. The variety was found susceptible to erwina rot infestation. Drenching the base of the plant with about 1 gm emisan solution diluted in a litre of water was found effective in controlling this infestation.

Yield statistics
The first bunch of fruits appear sometime during the eighth month after planting. During this time it is advisable for farmers to spray polyfeed over the fruit bunches to obtain uniform weight and growth. About 100 tonnes of fruits were harvested in the eleventh month after planting and sold at Rs. 8,000 per tonne. "I expect to harvest the first ratoon crop in the 21st month and the second in the 30th month," said Venkatesan. The main advantage of using fertigation technique according to Dr. Muthuvel, is that "all the bunches from the three crops will be almost uniform in size and weight."

Irrigation cost
Bunches from the planted crop weighed 30-32 kg each. The cost of the drip system worked out to about Rs.1.15 lakh per hectare. "I had purchased the suckers at a cost of Rs. 11 per sucker and have spent about Rs.1 lakh towards cultivation expenses," said Mr. Venkatesan.

Contact details : Mr. Venkatesan can be contacted at Poduthampatti Post, Kuddampatti village, Somanahalli, Palacode Taluka, Dharmapuri district, Tamil Nadu.


Contract farming of Coleus forskholii


The progressive farmer with his healthy crop of Coleus forskholii

Contract farming of Coleus forskholii (Marundu koorkan in Tamil ) is gaining popularity among small and marginal farmers in Salem district and its neighbourhood."It is an easy and a profitable crop for the farmers," said Mr. G. Sivaji, an enterprising farmer of Navalur Therku Kadu village near Athur in Salem district."I am growing Coleus for the third year now, and I have extended the crop to 1.2 hectares. The planting material and other inputs along with a cash advance is given by the agency, which is promoting the crop. The formalities are quite simple, and the market is well assured. The advanced money is adjusted at the end after the sale of the produce and the balance amount is paid to us," he explained. Coleus forskholii is a popular medicinal plant, and it does well in a variety of soils.

Being a hardy crop, free from any major pest and diseases, it can be grown with least care and investment. The soft stem cuttings of the plant Coleus forskholii are supplied to the farmers. The field is tilled three times to get a fine tilth, and liberal quantities of farmyard manure are added to it. Then it is ploughed into ridges and furrows at an espacement of 60 cm. The 15 cm long cuttings are planted on the side of the ridges. The spacing between the plants is about 45 cm. About 30,000 cuttings are needed to cover a hectare. A nursery raised in 5 cents is enough to yield planting material for a hectare, according to Mr. Sivaji. The crop was planted in October and initial irrigations were provided to support the establishment of the young plants. Subsequent rains helped in their quick growth.

A recommended dose of nutrients was applied as basal dressing, and plant protection measures were taken to prevent the incidence of sucking and chewing pests. On the 50th day after planting the crop , 125 kg of neem cake and 62.5 kg of ammonium sulphate per hectare were added, and the crop was earthed up. Another top dressing was done with 250 kg each of muriate of potash and gypsum on the 150th day. The crop was ready for harvesting when the plants were 170 to 180 days old. The top shoots were cut using sharp knives, and the tubers were uprooted using hand hoes. The plants can also be harvested using a simple country plough. About 20 to 25 tonnes of the fresh tubers can be harvested from a hectare of land. The tubers were sold at a nominal price of Rs. 4.50 a kg, according to Mr. Sivaji, the farmer of Navalur.


Micro-irrigation ideal for jasmine cultivation

An enterprising flower grower, Mr. P.Chinnadurai of Thedavur village, Gengavalli taluk of Salem district in Tamil Nadu has laid an ingeniously designed drip system in 25 cents of land for raising jasmine (Jasminum sambac) flowers.
"Drip irrigation came in handy to save my jasmine (Gundu Malli in Tamil) crop from the drought, and helped in getting higher returns as well," says Chinnadurai. The system, costing about Rs. 2800, helped in conserving water and arresting weeds. The crop, which was planted in June 2001, grew well and gave good yield. "The next year, I could not support the crop due to lack of water in the well, and the impact of drought was so severe that the crop was almost scorched. There was virtually no flowering at all," explains Mr. Chinnadurai.

But in 2003 when the conditions were even worse, he decided to go in for drip system and it had worked well. "After irrigating the jasmine using drip system, I had sufficient water to irrigate another 0.4 hectares of tapioca also," he says. The jasmine crop flowered almost all through the year, except December and January, when the dewfall was high, according to him. The progressive farmer had planted about 1100 plants in 25 cents at an espacement of 1.5 m by 1.5 m. They were planted in pits of 15 cm by 15 cm by 15 cm, and liberal quantities of farmyard manure were added to fill the pits.

Small quantities of major nutrients were added at monthly intervals to encourage plant growth. Micronutrients and plant growth regulators were applied as foliar spray once a month. The plants grew to spreading bushes of 0.5 to 1.0 metres tall, and started flowering from February. Initial yields were about 10 kg a day. The yield gradually increased to a peak of 60 kg in July. It started to decline from August and in December and January, there was no flowering at all, according to him. He got an average price of Rs. 80 a kg of flowers.

The cost of cultivation of jasmine in 25 cents was about Rs. 10,000. If maintained well, the crop could be made to yield regularly for about 15 years. The drip system could also be kept without much damage till that period, according to him. "One important strategy to get a good price in the market is to manure the crop at least thirty days ahead of the festival season.

Synchronisation of flowering to peak market price is crucial in flower farming. Similarly, if we manure the crop during the waxing phase of the moon, we will get higher flower yields than the normal season," points out Mr. Chinnadurai.
His jasmine crop was growing luxuriantly, and he did not face any pest and disease problems during the last few years of the crop.


Eco-friendly methods to boost onion yield

When grown with organic inputs, the crop developed deep roots and could withstand drought conditions.


COUNTRY ONION with large-sized bulbs can be harvested when raised with organic farming technologies. The onions will taste better and can stand long storage as well according to farmer-scientist, Mr.V.Antonysamy of Chintamani, Puliangudi in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.

He has successfully demonstrated an organic package for getting higher yields from country onions. He planted the onions in June-July season. About 1500 kg of bulbs were used to cover a hectare. The bulbs were planted in ridges and furrows thrown 40 cm apart, and the spacing between plants in a row was 15 cm.

The main field was thoroughly worked to remove all stubbles and stones and it was brought to a fine tilth by repeated ploughings. Liberal quantities of farmyard manure were incorporated with the final ploughing. The field was irrigated immediately after planting, and the young sprouts showed up within a week. When the plants were about 15 days of age, the first manual weeding was done, and the earth was stirred up using a hand hoe. This facilitated better aeration for the root zone. Soon afterwards, the first spraying was done with fish ensilage, according to Mr. Antonysamy.

The fish ensilage was prepared by soaking 1 kg of marine fish in a 1 kg jaggery solution dissolved in 1 litre of water in an earthen pot. In about a month the fish decomposed in the fermented broth of jaggery as indicated by sweet smell. The ensiling process takes only fifteen days in the case of inland fish. About 100 ml of the resultant liquid was diluted in 10 litres of water, and the suspension was sprayed on the crop, according to him. On the 30th day of planting, a second round of weeding was done, and at that time 3 per cent solution of Panchakavya was sprayed to make it grow luxuriantly. On the same day, about 10 tonnes of compost mixed with rice husk ash was broadcast over the entire field.

The field was copiously irrigated to soak in the nutrients. Subsequent irrigations followed at weekly intervals as dictated by the soil moisture regimen. As a plant protection measure a botanical insect repellent was sprayed on the crop when it was 15 days old. The plant-based concoction called `Poochi viratti', was made by soaking equal quantities of leaves of Vitex negundo (Nochi), Calotropis gigantea (Erukkan), Nerium (Arali), Aloe vera (Sothu Kathazhai) and Pongamia pinnata (Pungam) in cow's urine for seven days in shade. The fermented liquid is diluted ten times in water and sprayed over the crop to repel sucking and chewing pests, according to him. To protect the crop from any fungal infection, Mr. Antonysamy sprayed it with a mixture of Aloe vera and country garlic pearls ground and soaked in water for 24 hours. This preparation was diluted in 200 litres of water and sprayed over the crop at monthly intervals starting from the 15th day of planting. Two more manual weedings on the 45th day and the 60th day were done.

The crop grew well, and was ready for harvest on the 70th day. The leaves turned yellow. The crop grown with organic inputs had developed deep, penetrating roots and could withstand drought conditions.
The crop was harvested manually, and a yield of 17.5 tonnes of bulbs was recorded from one hectare. The cost worked out to Rs.50, 000 per hectare, and he sold the crop at a rate of Rs.5 a kg, according to Mr. Antonysamy.


High yielding amla for high density planting



The innovative engineer in the high-density amla plantation raised in marginal land.

AMLA (INDIAN gooseberry or Nelli) is a hardy, drought tolerant crop, and it lends itself to high density planting even in marginal and wastelands. "Through systematic pruning techniques, the grafted trees of high yielding varieties can be retained as bushes of profuse bearing and such bushes are ideally suited for high density planting," says Mr. R. Kolandaisamy, an engineer-turned-farmer at Marungulam village near Thanjavur.

"High yielding amla varieties such as NA 7, Krishna and Chakia are particularly suited for closer planting with a spacing of 3 m by 3 m. By adopting this spacing and following hexagonal or triangular method of planting as many as 1200 plants can be accommodated in a hectare. Some shade-tolerant medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus sp (Keelanelli) and gulmeg can be grown as intercrop until the amla trees reach economic bearing age," explained this innovative and enterprising engineer.

Water management
In his 25-hectare organic farm integrated with high-tech nursery, he has laid a demonstration plot of 0.4 hectare with more than 400 grafts of high yielding varieties of amla. "Water management and special pruning techniques are crucial for its success. I have laid drip-system for the efficient discharge of water right at the root zone, and adopt the unique pruning to encourage lateral shoots for year-round profuse bearing and easy harvesting," points out Mr. Kolandaisamy.

Good quality and healthy grafts of the high yielding varieties were planted in well-prepared fields. Small pits of 30 cm by 30 cm by 30 cm were filled up with good organic manure, mulched with coir pith compost, neem cake and vermi-compost to increase the water holding capacity of the soil. Biofertilizers such as Azotobacter, phosphobacterium and Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (VAM) were applied regularly to boost the plant growth. Initially, for the first three months, the drip-system was set to deliver 25 litres per plant per day (depending on the soil moisture regimen).

When the plants were established, the same quantum of water was used for irrigation on alternate days.
After the first year of growth, when the grafts have put down penetrating and extensive root systems, each plant would need only 25 litres once a week, that too in peak summer. The plants are systematically pruned, and fruiting can be noticed even in young plants.

However, economically viable and bigger fruits can be got from the third year of planting. Each plant will yield about 25 kg of fruits a year. When the trees are five years old, the yield per tree will gradually rise to 50 kg a year. Cost per hectare From the 8 th year onwards, the average output per tree will be about 100 kg a year, according to Mr. Kolandaisamy.

The cost of raising an amla plantation works out to Rs. 1.25 lakh per hectare. The returns from the third year of planting, at an average price of Rs. 10 / kg of fruits, will be about Rs. 2.5 lakhs. Cultivation of medicinal plants as intercrops would provide returns till the amla comes to bearing and fetch assured returns. With sound management of natural resources and good varieties, we can make every square centimetre of our farm yield rich dividends," points out Mr. Kolandaisamy.


Agro-Astro for Success

Agro Astrology will help sure for successful farming – tells Mr. Velayudham, a Beetroot farmer of Udumalpet. 
He is cultivating all crops in his field. His lifeline is beetroot. He has studied all aspects of beetroot. Before cultivating a crop one should analyze the following how many acres of beetroot is being cultivated around the country, when do they come to harvest, future of market, expected yield, are there chances for inflow from other states, etc., this is known as crop astrology. Number of farmers seeks his advice to cultivate their crops.

Mr. Velayudham a graduate in Agriculture had been working as Agricultural officer for many years. The farmers harvest the entire produce and sell it in the nearby markets, so they do not get higher prices. Farmers should know the market rates of various places. To get this information he has planned to set up Agricultural Information and Advisory centre at Udumalpet.

Beetroot is a short duration crop (50 -60 days). It is usually grown in cool areas of Ooty and Kodaikanal but now it is being cultivated in Udumalpet too. Since the climate is similar for most seasons. Beetroot has high demand in Madurai, Ottanchatram, Dindigul, Kerela, Thirupur, and Theni. 2 – 3 farmers can join together to sell it in these markets.

Establishment of cold storage and post harvest techniques is a must for farmers. Establishment of Agricultural produce Procurement Corporation will give higher income to the farmers.

Economics of Beetroot Production in 1 acre of land

Price of 1 kg is Rs.4 to Rs.13.

S.No

Particulars

Quantity

Expenditure

Income

1.

Seeds

2kg

1500

-

2.

Sowing

8 persons

800

-

3.

Weeding - 3 times

30 persons

3000

-

4.

Pesticide - + Labour

3feet

1500

-

5.

FYM

2load

1600

-

6.

Poultry manure

1 load

1200

-

7.

Tractor ploughing

1.15 hr

400

-

8.

Ridges and Furrows (Labour)

 

400

-

9.

DAP

1bag

450

-

10.

Potash

1 bag

250

-

11.

ZnSo4

10kg

300

-

12.

Micronutrient

5kg

250

-

13.

Granular pesticide

5kg

300

-

14.

Potash

1 bag

250

-

15.

Urea

1 bag

250

-

16.

Irrigation (14 irrigation) Labour

60 days

1400

-

17.

Harvest

 

4500

-

18.

Total Income (Rs.4 x 9000kg)

 

 

36,000

 

Total

 

18,350

36,000

 

Net profit

 

 

17,650

Contact:  Mr. Velayudham, 9443748966


Green Gold- Bamboo

Mr.   Balasubramanian, Agricultural teacher, Vandayar   Higher Secondary School, explains the benefits of bamboo. Bamboo is the fastest growing plant and it gives more income. It can grow upto 1 – 4 feet in a day. Mr. Balasubramanian is cultivating bamboo (thorn less) in 4 acres in Kotturgandhavanam, Thorn less bamboo has many benefits. It is used in :

        • building construction as it is very strong
        • handicrafts
        • furniture’s, toys, bags, mat, musical instrument

Another interesting item made of bamboo is clothes. It absorbs sweat more than cotton. Houses are also constructed using bamboo in Kerala and North east India. In Kerala the growing tips are used for food also. He is growing 4 types of thorn less bamboo.

The dried foliage is its only manure. There are no special practices for its growth, bamboo gives yield from the 5th year. It can be harvested for 150 years. From 1 acre of bamboo, we can get 12 tones of foliage which can be used to prepare vermicompost worth Rs. 60,000/-. In an acre, if 2000 trees are cut back the income is Rs.1 lakh (Rs.50 per tree).

Mr. Balasubramanian, has established bamboo gardens for many industrialists. He has also received a certificate of Merit for Bamboo cultivation from Union Minister Mr. Rasa.
For more details contact
: Mr. Balasubramanian.9486408384.


Drip Revolation - A Granny's Out look

 ‘What does precision farming mean to the common farmers, apart from its science and technology ‘
Pennagram is a small village near the main centre of Dharmapuri. We inquired about precision farming to an old lady in the roadside an intuition to know to which level the knowledge has reached. Her replied included all the basics of precision farming namely, Chisel plough, Raised bed, black pipes (meaning drips ), fertilized water ( uranthani fertigation ), drip irrigation, more brinjal, tomato, banana, etc.

There are 5 precision farmers Association in Krishnagiri and 6 in Dharmapuri district. They form the precision farming army. They are on par with any scientist in explaining the latest system of farming. Precision farming has been modified to reach the common villagers. We shall start with granny’s words.

Chisel plough
Ploughing is done using tractor. The rear part is removed and the old model plough is fit to it. This is called Chisel plough (Uri kalapai ). This will plough 2 feet deep. The ordinary plough scrapes only the upper surface. Chisel plough, when used for 2 years, becomes highly loose and porous. This helps in deep rooting and aeration below the ground surface.

Raised bed
Making of tall ridges is called raised beds. Beds and channels are used for farming. The beds have 1feet height and 4 feet width. The channels are 1feet deep from the ground surface. Thereby a total of 2feet below the upper surface of bed. In each raised bed two rows of crops are grown at a distance of 3 feet. Banana is raised only in one row on this bed.

Drip pipes
Irrigation is given using drip method. Tubes of finger thickness are used for this purpose. Each lateral unit has two tubes. The distance between two such lateral unit is 1 ½ m or while the distance between two tubes in a single lateral unit is 3 feet. This aids in supplying water to two rows of crops on the raised bed. The drip pipes are fitted with nozzles. The emitters are not kept outside, they are kept within. These are manufactured by Jain Irrigation Ltd. The distance between two emitters is 3feet. Water does not drip throughout, based on the water requirement irrigation is done upto a maximum of 1hr per day. Reduced water usage is one major reason for the success of precision farming in the water scarce Dharmapuri district.

Fertigation   
Fertigation is commonly called ‘Uranthani’. In the beginning of the drip system (i.e.,) the main pipe, water filter unit is fixed. Close to it is the mixing unit where fertilizers are mixed with the irrigation water. Special fertilizers are used in this system. They are water soluble fertilizers imported from Isreal. Mainly two types of fertilizers are used NPK 19:19:19 and Multi K 13-0-45. one kg of the first and 3kg of the latter is sufficient for 1 acre for 1 time of fertigation. However the periodicity is decided based on the crop growth. Micronutrients named Micnelf is also given in slight dose. The fertilizers are manufactured by Heiff chemicals, Isreal. The required chemicals at the required time in the root zone is the specialty of this system. This saves 50% water over the conventional method.

Higher yield in Brinjal
Our granny says more brinjal, tomato…, Tamilnadu Agricultural University gives the statistics.

S.NO

CROP

YIELD

TONNES/HA

INCREASE %

        

 

National average

Precision yield

 

       1

Tomato

17.35

150

764.55

       2

Chilli

12.02

35

191.18

       3

Brinjal

10.46

156

1334.03

       4

Ladies finger

6.28

16

154.78

       5

Tapioca

25.52

52

103.76

       6

Turmeric

4.95

9

81.81

       7

Sugarcane

80-100

250

177.77

       8

Cotton

15-20(Quintal)

30(Quintal)

111.43

       9

Watermelon

12.71

60

372.06

     10

AshGourd

21.95

40

82.23

     11

Onion

11.32

21

85.51

     12

Banana

28.58

110

284.88

     13

Cabbage

14.38

120

734.49

     14 

Cauliflower

14.22

33

132.06

     15

Pumpkin

11.91

50

319.81

     16

Bittergourd

6.23

15

140.77

     17

Ribbedgourd

15.85

34

114.51

     18

Bottlegourd

12.21

66

440.54

     19

Cucumber

6.48

20

208.64

     20

Beans

5.8

12

106.89

     21

Beetroot

16.75

35

108.95

     22

Rose

10lk stems

25lk stems

150.00

     23

Marigold

10

25

150.00

     24

Chrysanthemum

8-15

25

117.39

Marketing:
The farmers in Tamilnadu never had to search markets for their produce. Kerela is their biggest market. More than 50% of their produce are sent to Kochi market. The best quality goes to safal market in Bangalore where it fetches more prices. The remaining finds place in Tamilnadu markets. Marketing is by collective bargaining by the associations. Moreover, Dharmapuri Producers Company also has created influence.

Other details:  
Our granny has not done farming. Her words missed out the following – seed, land preparation, nursery, group strength, etc.,

Varieties:
The vegetables growers in TamilNadu are different from Keralites. In Kerala, only the subsidized government seeds are mostly used. Whereas in TamilNadu the farmers usually go for hybrid seeds developed by private seed companies. They are ready to pay more than Rs.10, 000/- for seeds alone. The popular seed firms for vegetables are Mahyco, Namdhar and US seeds. In Kerala, seeds of hybrids are used, whereas in TamilNadu, hybrid seeds are used. In the latter, hybrid vigour is more as it is 1st generation of hybrids.

Nursery
The farmers do not raise individual nursery. The associations grow community nursery to meet the demand of its members. Since the seeds are costly, care is taken not to waste even a single seedling. Portrays are used to grow single seedlings. The pits in the portrays are filled with vermicompost and coir pith. One seed is diddled into each pit. When grown up the seedlings are transplanted along with the growth media. Community nurseries are always in poly houses, maintaining temperature by the use of mist irrigation.

Land preparation:
The first step in land preparation is filling using chisel plough. Four types of fertilizers are used. Straight fertilizers (urea, potash ), organic manure (cow dung, poultry manure, vermicompost ), biofertilizers (tricoderma ) and water soluble fertilizers ( 19-19-19, Multi K ). They are applied at four stages of plant growth. i) root fixation (10-15 days ), growing stage (upto 45days ), flowering stage and harvesting stage. The scientist of Tamilnadu Agricultural University has given the exact dose for each of these stages. It is highly precise.

Remote sensing:
Satellite technology has been used but with limitations to get the soil formation map and utilization map. Apart from survey, the area of the farms was also estimated using this technology.

ABBREVIATIONS
In precision farming three abbreviations are commonly used. They are RS, GPS and GIS. GPS means Global Positioning System, which a particular farm or portion of farm is taken up for study using satellite. RS stands for Remote Sensing- which takes data on various aspects of this area. GIS stands for Geographical Information System- which is the use of the data obtained from satellite for various benefits.

DEBT TRAP IS AN OLD TALE
Denkanikotta Taluk in Krishnagiri district is the Telangana of Tamilnadu. The villagers here are settlers from Andhra Pradesh. They speak only Telegu even now.

P.Ramareddy entered into farming 40 years back after he obtained his degree. Earlier farming was lucrative but later it turned to be a total loss. From his 5acres of land, he had a debt of Rs.6 lakhs. In 2004, he entered into precision farming. He was able to repay his debts within 3 years and he has Rs.5 lakhs as his bank balance. Along with him 50 farmers in Sargapalli village have ventured into precision farming.

He has cultivated a total of 25 vegetable varieties, including Cabbage, Cauliflower, Tomato, chilli, Beans, etc., Grand Naine Banana, Ducth rose, Marigold and also Chrysanthemum. This 57 year old farmers is all in all of precision farming, he explains this system more scientifically and truthfully than any other farmers.


Cucumber – The Promising Crop

Mr. Murugayan of  North  Poigaynallur of, Nagapattinum is maping 120 baskets from 1 acre using chemical fertilizers. Whereas, Mr. Arumugam from Gramathimedu is reaping about 180 baskets from 1 acre using organic methods.

Production Technologies:
Harvesting should be completed by June – July. Cucumber grows well in salt less soil. It should be sown in January. The crop duration is 120 days. The soil should be ploughed 4 times with tractor and 1 time with country plough. Pits of size 1 x 1 x 1feet at a spacing of 8 feet should be taken. The pits should be applied with ½ basket of FYM and 15gm of D x P. 10 seeds should be sowed at 211 depths in the centre of pit. It germinates by 3 days, irrigate once in 2 days for the first 10 days in the morning. Apply ½ kg FYM, DAP 50g, Urea 50g and Potash 50gm on 20th and 40th day. The soil around the plants should be dug out.

120 baskets in 120 days:
Dig basins of ½ feet depth around the roots and irrigate in the morning. On the 25th, 40th and 60th days apply 25ml pesticides, 13ml of growth promoters by mixing with 13litre of water reduces the green caterpillar flowering starts by 30th day. On the 45th day it is ready for harvest.

Harvesting can be done from 45 to 110 days. The harvest per day is 2 baskets of 20 – 25kg each. The price of 1 basket is Rs.200 – 300. Care should be taken to harvest daily as price is reduced for over matured cucumbers.
The matured cucumber is left for seed production. It earns Rs.10/fruit.

Organic production of Cucumber:
The seeds should be treated with Azospirillum (100gm) and Tricoderma viridi (100g) mixed with rice kanji. It should be dried in shade for ½ an hour before sowing. Each pit is sowed with 7 seeds. Irrigation should be done every day in the morning hours for the first 10days. Apply ½ kg FYM on 15 – 20th day. Apply ½ litres of garlic solution along with organic pesticide after weekly once 20th day. Alternate these solutions over the week. During irrigation, (once in 4 – 7 days) mix 10litres of Jeevamirdha solution for application in 1 acre.

Mix ½ litres of Panchakavya in 1 tank of water and spray it once in 10 days after the 30th day. The crop flower on 25th day and is ready for harvest on the 35th day. The harvest per day is 3 – 4 baskets from 1 acre. The total yield is 180 baskets from 60 days.

Contact:  Mr. Murugayan – 9362720167,  Arumugam  –  9965322418.

Economics of Cucumber Production in 1 Acre:

 

Inorganic production

Organic production

S.No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

Expenditure

Income

1.

Ploughing

650

 

650

 

2.

Seed

150

 

150

 

3.

FYM

1500

 

2000

 

4.

Fertilizer

1000

 

-

 

5.

Pesticide + Growth promoter

750

 

-

 

6.

Organic inputs

-

 

500

 

7.

Soil loosening

3200

 

3200

 

8.

Irrigation

2000

 

2000

 

9.

Pit formation

400

 

400

 

10.

Harvesting

1000

 

1200

 

11.

Sale of cucumber
(120 baskets@ Rs.200/basket)
(180 baskets@ Rs.200/basket)

 

24,000

 

36,000

 

Total

10,640

24,000

10,100

36,000

 

Net profit

 

13,350

 

25,900


Higher income through intercropping – Pineapple in Mango & Coconut

Pineapple is a rain fed crop requiring equal amount shade and temperature. It can be intercropped with coconut and rubber. In many places it is grown for soil conservation. The plant is taken care of only at planting and harvesting. Generally 7.8 suckers arise from a single cropbut farmers usually remove the suckers when it is 3-4 as they believe that yield will be reduced beyond this. Production Pineapple is a one year crop and panting starts from May-June. Red soil, send and silt together in right proportion is most suited. 5,000 to 10,000 suckers may be planted per acre, this may be increased to 20,000 in intensive cultivation. But in intercropping it should be limited to 5,000 spacing : 1 x 1 ft.
Plant 10 rows and leave 2 feet gap between the rows. while planting apply FYM in pits. Weeding should be done once in 3 months. Apply fertilizers two months after planting and once after flowering (100 kg complex fertilizers) care should be taken while applying fertilizers as the tips get burnt off if fertilizers are applied on them.
Mr.Henry uses only vermicompost. In some places fertilizers applied  by placing plastic funnel in between the rows. By doing this, the fertilizer will dissolve and reach the root zone. This is done only in rainy seasons.
Pineapple is highly resistant to diseases. During rainy season, crown rot appears. This is not very dangerous, as it appears in 4 or 5 plants only. Rats and squirrels also attack the fruits but does not cause economic loss. The fruit ripens after II months. It can be harvested when the colour becomes uniform. Harvested produce is marketed at ‘APTA’, Vadacheri, Mathur thothipalayam markets. The income got per acre for 1 year is Rs.50,000/-.
Pineapple grows well in all parts of Tamil Nadu even in the dry tracks of Sivagangai.
Rajareeha

“ I have cropped pineapple a intercrop in mango. coconut and vegetable garden. I got the suckers from Kerala. It requires shade hence inter cropping is the best option. Her garden is irrigated with drip irrigation. She applied FYM at planting. Panchagavya is applier after 3 months once. Vermicompost was applied twice a year. At fruit maturity Panchagavya was sprayed once. Fruits were big and tasty. She sells the fruits @ Rs,6 for small ones and Rs.10 for large ones. to Kerala and Kayakumari.

Economics
Planting Material                                               2,500.00
Planting cost                                                   25,000.00

Returns
1st year                                                         17,500.00
Total income in 4 years                                   50,000.00

Contact: Henry Head Tiruvallur farmers Association, Kotter, Thakkalai, Nagercoil Mobile : 9865582142


The hill crop – pepper, thrives well in plains too

Pepper does not grow in the hills alone, if similar environment is created in the plains, it gives good yield here too.
Mr. Veerasingham, of villar village, Thanjavur is cultivating Coconut, Arecanut, Ginger, Tippeli, and Cardamom in his farm named Vallalar Agricultural Farm.  Pepper, has medicinal properties and it has been utilized in Indian traditional food. Mr. Veerasingham ,experimented pepper cultivation in his farm Batlagundu as a challenge after seeing its growth in Kerala, Ooty and Kodaikanal.

The most important requirement for pepper cultivation is that the farm should be covered with trees. It is usually planted in July but it grows up well in any seasons. The cuttings are obtained at Ooty, Kodaikanal, Gudalore and Batlagundu. If intercropped with coconuts, pepper cuttings should be planted 2 feet from the trunk. Pits of depth ½ feet should be taken. If intercropped with other trees ½ feet distance is enough. The pit should be filled with sand, ash and manure. Only one cutting should be planted near a tree. Life irrigation should be given immediately after planting. Within 10 days, the cuttings produce new shoot and by the 3rd month it attains good establishment. The vines should be trailed on the tree using banana fibre, the vines produce clinging roots which absorbs nutrients from the tree. This does not affect the tree in any way. Once the vine grows to 3 feet, it should again be supported by tying with banana fibres. All the dried leaves and farm wastes should be pressed into the soil to act as manure. Separate fertilizer application is not necessary for pepper.

Since pepper has medicinal properties, it is not attacked by pests. If intercropped with coconut, pepper does not require additional irrigation. Otherwise it should be irrigated once in a week. By one year, pepper gets well established to absorb all nutrients from the soil. Four years after planting, pepper produces economic yield. It produces pepper in 2 seasons (i.e.) yielding period for 3 month and non yielding period of 3 months likewise 2 seasons in a year. Pepper vines give good yield for 30 – 60 years. Large sized pepper with good fragrance earns Rs. 180 /kg. The average income is Rs. 150.

Mr. Veerasingham has planted 100 pepper vines. It started giving him 500kg/year from the 6th year. On a minimum of Rs. 150/kg, the additional income that he gets is around Rs. 75,000/-. If the expenditure for cuttings, maintenance and harvesting comes to Rs. 15,000/- the net profit will be Rs. 60,000/-. Pepper indeed grows well in plains and yields profits.  


Red Banana  - Promising income

The farmers at yerumbukkadu village of Nagercoil are cultivating Red Banana over the years. They grow it as an intercrop in coconut garden. Red banana can be grown upto 5 years in coconut garden and also after 18 years, red banana give higher income than others. The price of red banana bunch is Rs.350 while for other varieties the price is Rs.150.

Mr.Meenakshi sundaram, of this village is cultivating red banana for the past 20 years. Presently he is cultivating red banana in 3 acres, other banana in 2 acres. He explained the production details.

Production technology
The best season is July-August. The crop is raised for 12 months and harvesting is done on the next July – August. Alluvial and red soils are best suited. If grown as intercrop in coconut the land need not to be ploughed. Pits should be taken whereas in single cropping system, the land should be ploughed well without clods, and pits of 1 ½ feet depth and 8 feet spacing should be taken and allowed to dry for 3 days. If the crop is to be rationed , the pit depth should be 2 feet. The plant population will be 680 numbers. It can be increased to 800 by closed spacing near the borders.

The secret behind sucker treatment
Suckers can be obtained from neighboring farms. The cost for one sucker is around Rs.3 each. Cares should be taken to select disease free suckers. Before planting, the suckers should be treated to prevent nematode attacked. The suckers should be soaked for 10 minutes in a solution prepared by mixing 100 liters of water with 3 liters panchakavya ( or 3 liters of vermiwash) with tricoderma viridi and pseudomonas.
The large suckers should be placed in the windward side followed by smaller sucker. This helps to reduce wind and gives uniform yield. After one month of planting, sun hemp can be sowed. When it comes to flowering, it should be ploughed insitu. Before harvesting 3 weedings should be done. At 1 ½ months apply vermicompost @ 1 ½ kg per tree and on the 75th day apply 1 basket of farmyard manure with 100gm urea,120g potash, 200g super phosphate for each tree. Within 95-100th day place Azospirillum, vermicompost and phosphobacteria @ 200g per tree.

Panama wilt
Nematode infestation will be heavy at 100 to 120 days. During this time, apply 200 neem cake + 100g urea +200g potash per tree. Monthly once apply 250g neemcake per tree. Also spray panchagavya ( 400 ml in 10 liters of water) monthly once.

The plants affected with root knot nematode show yellowing of leaves and small bunches. Suckers treatment is essential to control this. Inter cropping with sun hemp and marigold also controls nematode attack.
The plant affected with panama wilt shows yellowing of leaf borders and the bunches do not show out normally. The leafs drops down and the stem longitudinal cracks. Growing banana crop continuously in the same field causes panama wilt. To control, apply 0.2% carbendozium once in two months or rhizome injection with 3 ml of carbendozium.

Stem borer can be controlled by neem cake,(Meenakshi sundaram is applying egg amino acid) on the leaves.
Flowering is at the 7th month. Till then all side suckers should be removed / destroyed. This improves the growth of mother plant. If ratoon crop is planned, retain one healthy sucker after removing the flower from the mother plant. At flowering spray panchakavya on the flowers for good and more yields. The flowers can be removed when two empty bunches appear. 10 days after bunch establishment, the bunch should be covered with coconut fronds or dried banana leaves, this prevents high temperature injury and also improves the colour of the fruit. Harvesting can be done at 11th – 12th month.

If when the traders come to the field to harvest, the rate is Rs,275/ bunch. If taken  to the market the price got is Rs.350/ bunch. If the traders come to the filed the cost of labour for harvesting and transport is not included. Mr. Meenakshi sundaram says that he gets  Rs.1 lakh from his 1 acre of field consisting of 800 plants.(100 plants reduced for disease & damage). 

                                                                                    

Economics of Red banana cultivation in 1 acre

S. No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

1.

Field preparation

6250

 

2.

Pit formation

4000

 

3.

Sucker

2400

 

4.

Farm yard manure

36,000

 

5.

Neem cake

4800

 

6.

Bio fertilizers

2700

 

7.

Chemical Fertilizer

6500

 

8.

Weeding

5000

 

9.

Fertilizers application

3200

 

10.

Bunch covering

3350

 

11.

Sale of bunches
[700 bunches * 270 (rupees) ]

 

1,89,000

12.

Total

74,200

1,89,000

 

Net Profit

 

1,14,800

Contact      : Mr. Meenakshi sundaram, 9443844752


Seed production of Greens can yield great profits

Mr. Balu, Mathur village, owns about 100 of acres in Villupuram and Thiruvannamalai districts are successfully producing amaranthus seeds over the years.

Hard work yields
According to Balu, fertile red soil and sufficient irrigation water are the reasons for their success. Amaranthus, when grown for seed production it gives more profits.

Production Technology for Amaranthus
Amaranthus should be sown in November – December season. The land should be ploughed well and ridge, and furrows with spacing 6 x 8 feet should be formed. The seed requirement for 1 acre is 4 kg. It should be mixed with 5 kg of sand and broadcasted over the ridges. The soil should be spread evenly with a fork. Seeds of the same field should not be used.

400 kg from 90 days
Life Irrigation, 3 days later once and once in a week is the irrigation schedule. Basal fertilizer of DAP – 2 bags should be applied. Apply at 20th day Dimethoate 250ml in 100 litre of water and spray sucking pests, stem borer and aphids. On 35th day, apply monochrotophos @ 500ml in 100 litre of control leaf eating green caterpillar. Weeding should be done at 20th and 40th day. On 40th day mix 1 bag of potash with 1kg of urea and apply. The grains are ready by 90th day. Harvesting requires 10 labourers per acre. The plants should be dried for 3 days. Later it is spread on the road so that the grains are separated. The grains are winnowed and separated. The yield is 400kg/acre. The current price is Rs.100 per kg.

Sirukeerai production
The technologies are similar to that as mentioned above but the seed rate is 5 kg/acre. The duration is only 55 – 60 days and the rate is Rs.150 /kg. The major pests are Prutonea and stem borer.

Natural pest control methods
Agniasthiram: Boil 15 liters of cow’s urine with ½ kg tobacco, ½ kg green chilli, ½ kg garlic, and 5kg of neem leaf. It should be boiled 4 times. After 48 hrs, strain it and spray it over the plants. It may be stored for 3 months in bottle. This is effective in controlling Prutonea and leaf feeders.

Pest control: Collect 1 kg each of any 5 crop species that is not grazed by goats e.g. Notchi,  Calotropis, Papaya, Neem, etc., Grind it well and boil it with cow’s urine. This should be tied up. Drain this after 3 days. Mix 300 – 500ml of this solution in 10lt of water and spray. Care should be taken not to exceed 500lt as it will burn the leaves.

Economic of seed production in Amaranthus (1acre)

 

     Thandukeerai

       Sirukeerai

S.No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

Expenditure

Income

1.

FYM

1000

 

1000

 

2.

Ploughing

1000

 

1000

 

3.

Furrow

1000

 

1000

 

4.

Seeds

1000

 

1200

 

5.

Sowing

200

 

200

 

6.

Weeding

1600

 

1600

 

7.

Fertilizer

2000

 

2000

 

8.

Fertilizer application

200

 

200

 

9.

Pesticides

750

 

750

 

10.

Spraying

250

 

250

 

11.

Irrigation

700

 

700

 

12.

Harvest

1800

 

1800

 

13.

Thrashing

500

 

500

 

14.

Yield (Rs.200 x 400kg)

 

40,000

 

 

15.

Yield (Rs.240 x 400kg)

 

 

 

48,000

Total expenditure

12,000

 

12,200

 

Net income in 90days

 

28,000

 

 

Net income in 60days

 

 

 

35,800

 
Contact: Mr. Balu - 9894934477,  Mr.Krishna-9841261835


Drumstick production

Drumstick is cultivated in Dindigul and Karur districts of TamilNadu. It is marketed in Manmari and Ottanchatram markets. It is taken to Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal. Since the usage of drumstick has increased in other districts, its demand is high despite high production.Mr. Mani of Puthupatti village explains about drumstick cultivation.

Annual Moringa and tree Moringa are the two types of Moringa grown. Mr. Mani is cultivating Annual Moringa. Moringa grows well in Red soil too. Annual Moringa comes to bearing in 6 months. It should be planted in April, May because drumstick fetches higher price in the months of November, December and January. Care should be taken to give proper irrigation and drainage. Annual Moringa has many high yielding types. The seeds should be tied up in a cloth and soaked in cow dung mixed with water or panchagavya for a day. The bundle can be tied to a stone so that it does not float.

Direct planting
          It can be grown directly or by establishing nursery. In direct planting, furrows of size 6 * 7 feet are formed. In this pits of size 1 * 1 * 1 are formed. The pits are filled with red soil and Farm Yard Manure and the seeds are sowed at a depth of 2 inches. The seed requirement is 300gm / acre.

Nursery Method
Nursery bags are filled with sand, Farm Yard Manure, garden soil and red soil. The treated seeds are sowed at 1 inch depth and it should be watered daily using rose can. After germination, irrigation can be done once in 3 days. The seedlings are ready for transplantation within one month. The main field should be prepared by farming 6 * 7 feet furrows. In this 1 ½ * 1 ½ * 1 ½ feet pits should be formed. Apply 74M to those pits and plant the seedlings. Nursery method saves 100gms of seeds.

In both methods the soil surface should be kept moist always. The apical buds should be pinched to allow side branches.Moringa can be intercropped with watermelon, chilli, tomato, and bhendi. At the 3rd month of planting 100g urea, 100g super Phosphate and 50gm Potash should be applied to each plant. After this, 100g urea should be applied once in 6 months. The common pests and diseases are root wilt, flower drop, fruit drop, sucking pests and flies. The recommended control measures should be used regularly.

Yield in Annual Moringa : 
Each tree gives 35kg of drumstick in 1 season. It yields well for 1 ½ years. Later it should be uprooted and new seedlings should be sown.

Yield in Tree Moringa :    
Mr. Alagarsamy of Pallapatti is cultivating tree moringa in 5 acres. Normally tree moringa fetches less price than Annual moringa but it varies with taste and fleshiness. He is supplying high yielding tree moringa saplings and has given consulting for 2000 acres of Moringa. He explains the moringa cultivation.   
The land should be ploughed well and moringa should be planted at a spacing of 18 * 12 feet. Each tree should be applied with 50g Azospirillum, 25g Phosphobacteria, 1kg Vermicompost, 25g Neem oil cake, little Panchagavya and EM solution. Pests can be controlled by using organic pesticides. The problem of gum exudation is minimal. When the plant grows the apical tips should be cut back to allow lateral branching. On the cut site, cow dung should be placed. Further application of fertilizers will produce flowers and fruits. Planting should be done only in ½ acre at the beginning, 6 months later the other ½ acre should be planted. This gives continuous harvests throughout the year. One acre can support 200 plants and they come to bearing in 6 months from the second bearing each tree produces 100kg of fruit (i.e.,) 20.000 kg from 1 acre. The minimum income is Rs.5/kg. (i.e.,) Rs.1 lakh / year. The cost of production comes to about Rs. 15,000/- . Hence the net profit is Rs. 85,000/- per year. It yields for a number of years. 

  


No cost pandal


Pandal system is used to support bitter gourd, ribbed gourd, snake gourd and lablab. But Mr. Selvaraj of Periyakammalpatti, Sulur Block, Coimbatore is cultivating gourds on harvested and dried crops. Usually pandal is made of stone pillars, which is very costly. Because of this reason most of the farmers do not practice this cultivation. Mr. Selvaraj new system is cost effective.

Money yielding bitter gourd :
Mr. Selvaraj has 2 ½ acres of land with well irrigation. Also it is supplied with canal irrigation from Parambikulam Aliyar Project (PAP) for 9 months. The farmers of his area have planted coconut as they have no water scarcity. He has also planted coconut trees, 3 years back. It was intercropped with chillies, onion, brinjal, beetroot and bhendi. He later comes to know from a trader that bitter gourd can yield better profit than these crops. But he was reluctant because of the cost for establishing pandal in his coconut farm.


Coconut intercropped with chillies :He struck with the idea of growing bitter gourd on chillies while he saw one bitter gourd plant trailing over a brinjal.In between the 3 years coconut trees, he cultivated chillies in one acre. At the harvesting stage he sowed bitter gourd in the same field and allowed it to trail over the chilli plants.

350gm seed for 1 acre :
        Chillies should be cultivated using the normal package of practices in the month of June. Harvesting of chillies can be done from July – August to January. At the close of harvesting season, do one wedding and sow bitter gourd seeds in the furrows such that it gets plenty of sunlight. Approximately 350gm of seed is required for 1acre, Life irrigation should be given immediately after sowing, Later irrigation should be given once in 5 days. 15 days later the plant grows up. At this time it should be supported on the chilli plant.

Additional fertilizer not required : 
        During flowering and fruit settling stage, groundnut cake (soaked in water for 1 day) should be mixed with irrigation water. Side branches should pinched back in 50 days. 60 days after, plants come to harvest. The ground becomes porous and leases more micronutrients due to the application pf groundnut cake. Sucking pests should be controlled by applying pesticides in two rounds.

100kg per day :
  In stone pandal type, fruits came to harvest in 90 days whereas in this type it takes only 60 days. But the labour charge for harvesting is a bit high as they have to be harvested by bending a little. Harvesting is fullfledged in April – May. He gets 100kg / day from his 1 acre land. A total of 6 tonnes can be obtained from the crop. The size of the fruit and yield lesser than obtained in pandal type. However the cost and duration is reduced.

Contact : Selvaraj, 9486383595.

Comparison of cost of cultivation : 

 

Natural pandal

Stone pandal

S.No

particulars

Expenditure

Income

Expenditure

Income

1.

 Farm yard Manure

-

-

1500

-

2.

 Ridges & furrow

-

-

500

-

3.

 Seeds (350g)

1440

-

2300

-

4.

 Sowing cost

200

-

200

-

5.

 Groundnut cake (50kg)

1200

-

-

-

6.

 Weeding

500

-

1000

-

7.

 Trailing charges

-

-

500

-

8.

 Fertilizers (5 times)

-

-

4000

-

9.

 Pesticides & labour charge

1000

-

3000

-

10.

 Harvesting charge

6000

-

5000

-

11.

 Transport, Commission, Tax        

6000

-

9000

-

12.

 6tonnes bitter gourd- @ Rs.8/kg

-

48,000

-

-

13.

10tonnes bitter gourd

-

-

-

80,000

 

Total

18,740

48,000

30,000

80,000

 

Net profit

-

29,260 (4months)

-

50,000 (6months)

 In natural pandal the cost of fertilizers applied for chilies and pandal(1lk in stone pandal) are less.


An income yielding, slow drying flower - Ixora

The main problem with flower cultivation is that it should harvest and marketed in time. Only a few flower s are exempted from this. One such flower is Ixora  commonly called  Idli poo / Vritchika poo in Tamil. This doesn’t dry even after 3 days. In the plant it stays fresh upto 7 days. Dr. Sakthivel, Veterinary Doctor, Attur, Salem is cultivating this successfully in 60 cents of land.

This crop doesn’t require ploughing for almost 10 years and the flowers can be plucked even 2 days later and also the water requirement is less. In the initial year yield is less, whereas as years roll on the yield increases substantially. This crop can be planted in every season except in heavy rainy season. The land should be fertile with irrigation facility. The land should be ploughed twice to get good tilth and aeration. Since the plant is maintained for 10 years, enough quantity of Farm Yard Manure should be applied. Ridges are formed at 9 feet spacing and the plants are planted at 3 feet spacing. Grafts are used for planting. Red coloured Ixora has good market. The polythene sheet should be removed before planting. 1000 grafts are required for 60 cents of land. It takes 6 months for harvest. Till then intercropping with onion, marigold, coriander, bean, cowpea, black gram can be done. Following drip irrigation reduces weed growth. Weeds can be removed using power tiller. Irrigation should be done in alternate days. 50 gm of groundnut cake should be applied once in 60 days. It may be replaced with castor cake, pungam cake, neem cake and Mahua cake (elupai).

Ants are the main problem as they come to take the honey. To control them Spray 1 tank Monochrolophos 60ml mixed with 50gm of wettable sulphur. In 3 years, the plant grows to a height of 7feet. The branches should be pinched to maintain short stature for easy plucking of flowers. When 80% of buds have bloomed they can be plucked. This can be done even at 50%. Since the flowers are big, it gives more weight. Harvesting can be done once in a week after 6 months. On an average, 7kgs of flowers can be obtained in a week. In 12 months this can be obtained once in 2 days. The price fluctuates between Rs. 50 – 80 / kg. Dr. Sakthivel sells his flowers in Salem market.

Ixora is used for making garlands as its shelf life is long. He advices the farmers to study the market before entering into Ixora cultivation.

Contact:  Dr.Sakthivel, 9486596032

Economics of Ixora cultivation in 60 cents   

S.No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

1.

Ploughing

300

-

2.

Farm Yard manure (3tonnes)

3000

-

3.

Grafts Rs.4*1000

4000

-

4.

Pits and planting

500

-

5.

Drip irrigation

5000

-

6.

Weeding

2400

-

7.

Power tiller (1hr)

500

-

8.

Groundnut cake

900

-

9.

Pesticides

400

-

10.

Harvest 170kg  Rs. 50*170

 

8500

Intercropping Income

1.

Onion 3 months

      

25,000/-

2.

Marigold (4 months)

 

7000/-

Total

17,000

40,500/-

Net profit in a year

23,500

Note:This is calculated for first 6 months, as the days go by, the yield increase and the initial cost is reduced. The net profit per year can go upto Rs. 1, 00,000/ year /acre.


Profit in lakhs Top

Here profits are spoken in lakhs, though the land area is just one acre and only one or two types of vegetables are grown.  Visitors Throng here right from London school of economics to the farmers of Kottayam. Everybody reach here to see ‘thulliya pannayam ‘otherwise precision farming.

The attention of the entire nation is on our neighboring states Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts. They are the largest precision farming experimental plots of the nation and the smallest Indian replica of Isreal. The precision farming technology that has been harnessed by America and Isreal is now in India. Precision farming can be coined as ‘exact’ or ‘precise’. In Tamil it is called as ‘Thulliya Pannaya Vivasayam’ which means farming using drop by drop of water.

Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri are not unknown to Keralites. Buses plying to Bangalore and Hosur pass through those two places. Dharmapuri is just before Hosur and Krishnagiri is close to Dharmapuri. The four lane highway of L&T crosses through these two districts. A majority of the Keralites should have passed through these districts knowingly or unknowingly. But none of us were aware of the silent revolution that was happening here.

In TamilNadu, the scientists are with the farmers in the field. They stay there for weeks. The result is record yield in all crops. The national average yield of brinjal is 16 tonnes/ha and the best farmers in TamilNadu obtained 80 tones whereas precision farmers got upto 350 tonnes/ha. The growth from 16 to 300’s of tonnes is solely due to research. In tomato the national average is 17 tonnes/ha, the best farmer in TamilNadu obtained 60 tonnes whereas in precision farming the yield has 150 tonnes. Similarly banana national average stays at 35 tonnes, while precision farming yielded 120 tonnes. These are wonders indeed.
It was a great challenge for a team headed by Dr. E. Vadivel. They were to find 100 farmers for precision farming experimentation. This was the trouble in the first year. The second year saw yet another trouble of managing the farmers.

Dr. E. Vadivel is the Director of Extension Education in TamilNadu Agricultural University located at Coimbatore. The University took up the task of selling 400 ha of precision farming within 13years on behalf of the government. The university took up the tender for 7 ½ crores against a multinational company which quated 17 ½ crores. Dr. E . Vadivel was the leader with     Dr . I . Muthuvel as his right hand, since the project has been successful, the Pondicherry government is now seeking for           Dr . I . Muthuvel.

The blueprint of the project is as follows. To start with experimentation will be initiated in 100 ha with 100 farmers. In the second year it will be extended to 200 farmers. This was extended to 400 ha and 400 farmers in the consequent years. The estimate for 1ha of farming was Rs.75,000/- for drip and Rs.40,000/- for crop production. This amount was given as subsidy to the farmers by the government in the first year. In the subsequent year 10% of the subsidy was reduced and in the third year 20% was reduced. The governments aim was to uplift the farmers from the depression caused due to increased cost of production. To make farming profitable Dr .E .Vadivel and his team took up this task. Though discussions with farmers extended to weeks in farms, cattle sheds and godowns, they were not able to get even 50 farmers. They started the project with those available at hand. Other farmers who saw that something was happening around to joined in the project. A silent revolution, without even the media noticing it. Three years later, precision farming was highly talked about in Tamil media. The result was that many stakeholders wanted to become part of the project. The government yielded to this response. The project was sanctioned at 50% subsidy to all the districts.

The journey from Coimbatore to Krishnagiri takes 7 long hours. Hence the Krishi vigyan Kendra located at Dharmapuri took active participation in the projects’ implementation. A Regional Research station is located at Paiyur in between Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri. Here one staff quarters was converted into a guest house for the scientists who came from Coimbatore. The scientists contacted the farmers by staying here and so the distance between the farmers and scientists was reduced.

The farmers felt at home, when they visited the University. The trainees hostel provided for the farmers here is having a star hotels facilities. Five technology parks are established in TamilNadu Agricultural University to facilitate trainings at any time and on any subject. One of these technology parks is equipped with all the latest gadgets in information and communication technology. When university worked for farmers and farmers for university, the 100ha in Dharmapuri spread to the entire nation. There will be a period when TamilNadu will become India’s’ Israel.


Rose cultication in open fields

              
Mr. Manjunath Reddy has been able to cultivate Dultch Rose in open air under precision farming.For Manjunath Reddy precision farming’s strength is not only profit but also innovation. Till date Rose was being cultivated in polyhouse. Based on his own experimentation, Manjunath brought Rose out of polyhouse to the open field. The result was 100% success and profit upto Rs.2 lakhs.

Dutch rose variety is grown in Krishnagiri which is close to Hosur. Presently each village occupies 10 acres of Dutch rose in open field. Market is at Bangalore which is just 40km away. One bunch of flower is priced at Rs.60/-. Each bunch consists 20 flowers in red and yellow shades. The gross income from 1 acre of land is more than Rs.4000/-, per day while the expenditure per day is Rs.1000/-. Hence on an average the net profit is Rs.3000/-. Rose cultivation requires high care for fertilization, pest and disease management, hence farmers do not cultivate rose in large stretches. They cultivate it along with ‘Marigold, Chrysanthemum, and Aster’.

Another important flower that yields well in precision farming is Marigold (Banthi). One acre can hold 12,000 plants. Harvesting can be done 2 ½ months after planting, and it can be continued for 150 days @ 1 pinch /week. In one season about 8 tonnes of flowers can be harvested. The price for 1kg is Rs.5 to Rs.40/-. On an average one gets Rs.20kg. in conventional system the yield is 4 tonnes, while in precision farming the yield is 8 tonnes/acre.
               


Thulasi – A Helping Hand

The farmers of Madurai and Dindigul districts are cultivating Thulasi at low cost and harvesting more income. The expenditure for 1 acre of Thulasi is Rs.5000 (to the maximum). It gives yield from the 40th – 50th day to 5 years continuously.
Mr. Joseph Manicham of Kallupatti Dindigul explained the following. They came to know about Thulasi cultivation from Y new trust, who provided them Rs.4500/-. He cultivated Thulasi in 60 cents by forming 22 ridges. He applied Farm Yard Manure before sowing the crop at December. He started harvesting in 45 days. From each ridge he gets 100 – 110 bundles per harvest. He sells the fresh leaves at Dindigul flower market @ Rs. 1.50 to 2 per bundle. The fresh leaves can be kept for 2 days by sprinkling water over it. If the price is low, the leaves can be dried and sold.

There is no problem of pest and disease and he get around Rs.150 to Rs.200 / day. The income per month is Rs.3500 – Rs.4000/-. In the past 3 months, he has applied 74M (1 month) and ground nut cake (50 kg at 3 month). The cost has been Rs.5000 for 3 months while the income was Rs.11,000/-. The work is only for 2 hours in the morning and evening.

The farmers here are collecting Thulasi in small packets while Mrs. Jayanthi, of Thirumangalam, Madurai districts is cultivating in 40 acres successfully including intercropping in Amla. She is growing mostly for Thulasi seeds. In a single year, seeds can be obtained 4 times, each time the yield is around 3 – 4 kg. The yield is 12 kg / year. The price for 1 kg is Rs. 12, 00/-. Seeds are procured by Siddha Company. In addition to the seeds she gets 2 tonnes of green leaves from 1 acre. The price is Rs.6000 / tones. It is sent to Bangalore. Mr. Dhiraviyaraj executive ‘Y New’ organization says that Thulasi comes out well in areas with water scarcity. CAPART is providing Rs. 4500 for farmers cultivating Thulasi under the scheme ‘Rennaissance in Drought’. There is no problem in marketing. There is more demand for Thulasi as fresh leaves are used for garlands and seeds are for medicinal purposes ‘Y New’ group is ready to give cultivation advisory service.

Contact:
For marketing: Mr. Moithin Abdulkadhar, Virudhunagar,Mobile: 94427 – 17442                                   
Y New Group: Mr. Dhiraviyaraj – 9842780640
Farmer: Mrs. Jayanthi – 94430 – 70089

            Economic of Thulasi cultivation in 1 Acre

  S.No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

1.

Seeds

525

-

2.

Farm Yard Manure

1200

-

3.

Ploughing

800

-

4.

Ridge formation

500

-

5.

Weeding (6 weedings @ Rs.400 / weeding)

2400

-

6.

Fresh leaves 15 tonnes / year @ Rs.6 / kg

 

90,000

7.

Total

5425

90,000

 

Net profit

 

84,575

Tips in Thulasi cultivation:
Thulasi grows well in red and sandy soil. The spacing should be 1 x 1 feet. The seed requirement is ½ kg / acre in direct sowing. While in transplanted crop, the seed requirement is 350 gm. Care should be taken to buy healthy seeds.


Unending Drip and Unfailing Rewards

The banana field maintained by G.Mahendran gives 60 tonnes/acre with drip irrigation.  Mahendrans’ strength is banana that too Grand Naine banana. Mr.Mahendran of Nallampully, Dharmapuri district, in recognized as ‘Kulapathi’ of banana by local farmers. He considers precision farming as the only reason for this victory. According to him Dharmapuri got its victory in 2004. If Gandhiji got India its freedom, Dr. E.Vadivel got Dharmapuri its freedom, because he brought precision farming to Dharmapuri along with all good luck.

He grows Grand Naine banana variety in his own 5 acres of land and also another 5 acres which he has taken for lease from his Father-in-law. Anybody will look back again to see his bunches. Each weighs about 50kg.

 Nallampully also faces water shortage. In precision farming, irrigation is carried out in drip for only 1 hour/day; yet there is no reduction in yield. It is right to say that Dharmapuri got its freedom in 2004. The price for banana is Rs.5/kg in Dharmapuri. For a bunch of 50kg, the average price is 250. in some seasons the price goes upto Rs.8/kg. one acre holds 1200 banana crops. He is sure to get 60 tonnes of banana. He says he is sure to get Rs.2lks/acre after deducting his production cost.

Phone: 09994790646


Welcome Lablab


Lablab is one such crop that yields profits, without much investment and hard work. Hence farmers grow this crop without any debts. Mr.Kaliyaperumal of kathumala padukai village, Thanjavur district, explains about the cultivation of Lablab in his field.
Usually lablab is grown in 10 cents. The seeds are sown in June –July to harvest in December – January. The crop duration is 5 ½ months, hence it is not cultivated in larger areas. Lablab can be intercropped with castor with black gram , sorghum  and castor to get higher income. Lablab climbs over the sorghum  and hence the cost of pandal establishment is reduced. If intercropped with castor the problem of pests can be overcome. This type of intercropping is suitable for the season, as the climate needs to be dry during the three months. Black gram comes to harvest before the rains at October - November; After which sorghum also can be harvested. Only the ear heads are harvested as sorghum stalks acts as support for the lablab. After the north east showers, lablab and sorghum come to harvest. The major yield is from lablab says Kaliyaperumal. He continues to speak about the cultivation practices.

First: Black gram
Lablab comes out well in all types of soil but it is essential that there is good drainage. The soil should be dug out and applied with 1 ½ tonnes of FYM for  10 cents. Half kg of  black gram  should be broadcasted and the soil  should be pushed using coconut fronts so that the seeds are not exposed

Second : sorghum :
Based on the  land type, form, channels and furrows are formed at a distance of 6 feet. Sorghum seeds (2 No) should be sown at a depth of 1 inch and a distance of  2 inch.

Third : lablab :
2 Lablab seeds should be  sowed in between the sorghum seeds leaving a spacing of 4 fingers in between the sorghum seeds. The seeds should be placed at 1 inch depth. The seed requirement for 10 cents of land is ½ kg sorghum and 1 kg lablab.

Fourth : Castor:
Castor seeds are sowed on the border of the field at a spacing of 4 feet and a depth of 1 inch. It should  be irrigated immediately after sowing. All the seeds  germinate within  a week. Weeding should be done on the 15th day. Irrigation should  not be done immediately as weeds will grow again. Irrigate after 20 days to prevent this. Later irrigation should be done once in 10 Days. But during earhead formation stage in sorghum , irrigation should be once in 5 days. During each irrigation fertigate with 5 litres of Amutha Karaisal.

Harvest :  Black gram on 70th day : Sorghum  on 80th  day. Black gram comes to harvest on the 70th day after sowing. Black gram should be uprooted and dried in 3 days. It should be beaten up with stick to separate the grams. The yield from10 cents will be 20kg of black gram. Sorghum earhead can be harvested on the 80th day of sowing. The yields will be 350 ear heads from 10 cents. A lablab crop grows upto 8 feet long. It can be harvested from December last on January starting. It is harvested once in 5 days. The yield will be 75 kg/ harvest. The total yield comes to 475kg. the unpeeled vegetables will be priced between Rs.25-30/kg. If the harvest is delayed, then the grams are sold at the rate of Rs.30 /kg. The system of intercropping in 10 cents can be carried out without any additional labour and hence the profit is high says Kaliyaperumal.

Contact : Mr. Kaliyaperumal, 99433-21492.

Integrated  farming in 10 cents – Lablab, black gram, Sorghum, Castor –
Economics of production (Rs)

S. No

Particulars

Expenditure

Income

1.

Land preparation – digging out

110

 

2.

FYM ½ tonnes

200

 

3.

Channels & Furrows

50

 

4.

Lablab seeds 1kg

40

 

5.

Sorghum seeds ½ kg

25

 

6.

Castor seeds ½ kg

25

 

7.

Sowing charges

150

 

8.

Irrigation

300

 

9.

weeding

50

 

10.

20 kg Black gram * Rs. 30

 

600

11.

5 kg Castor * Rs.25

 

125

12.

Sorghum, Castor – Harvesting charges

75

 

13.

Lablab : Rs.25 * 475 kg

 

11,875

14.

Lablab : Rs.20 * 250 kg

 

5,000

15.

Lablab seeds
Rs 30 * 30 kg

 

900

16.

Harvesting charge for lablab

650

 

17.

Transportation

150

 

18.

Total

1900

18,850

 

Net profit

 

16,950


Wonder in system of rice intensification- to bags from 1acre! Are you ready for the kuruvai challenge

Highlight

  • Suited for saline and alkaline soils- Gives a maximum of 12.7 tonnes/ha.
  • Suitable for Navarai, Kar, Karuvai seasons.
  • Medium height, non lodgini type. 

Agriculture does not give profits- this is only said by people who do not practice proper agriculture, Agriculture when done with proper planning and involvement, does yield better results. I am a perfect example for this ‘.says Pandian of Peringotir village, near Sankarankoil, Thirunelveli.

Agriculture in this area is rain fed type. But in this region Mr.Pandian is growing banana, rice and coconut by well irrigation and is getting profit. He is followed by a number of other farmers in the region. He has become a model farmer in this region after experimenting with the hybrid rice CO.R.H-3 released by TamilNadu Agricultural University. He cultivated this under the system of Rice Intensification (or) single seedling Rice cultivation.

We met Pandian to hear from him. ‘Every farmer should know what is happening around him and also should keep abreast of what new technologies have been developed. Farmers should keep in contact with the extension officials to get more information. This is my experience’. He said that he came to know about Hybrid Co.3 from the extension officials. They said to him about its pros and cons. Now with minimal efforts he is getting good benefits.

Cultivation Practice :          
Banana garden- best suitable for nursery:    
After deciding the variety, I decided to prepare the nursery in the banana garden, since heavy sunlight can be avoided. This is essential for the growth of the seedling. Beds of 1m width and 5m length and ½ ft deep. This was layed with polythene sheet. Over this, soil, sand and manure was applied to a height of 2cm. Germinated seeds were broadcasted and it was watered daily using sprinkler, 14days later the seedlings grow to a height of ½  a feet. Since the seedlings were only ½ ft tall, the neighboring farmers doubted about its yield. I also had the same doubt but the agricultural officers assured me of its yield.

60 Tillers to a maximum:
I applied farm yard manure at the rate of 10 tonnes/acre before transplanting and broadcasted daincha. It was ploughed insitu after growth. The land was ploughed thrice to get a fine tilth. The 14days old seedling was transplanted only 1 seedling was planted at a place, maintaining a spacing of 25*25cm (with the help of a rope). The plants began to grow well because of its short stature and good aeration. Along with the plants, weeds also grew up. Conoweeder was used to remove the weeds once in 10days. These weeds turned as organic manure to the crop and it gave better aeration to the root system. As a result, a number of tillers appeared in each plant. About 60tillers arise from a single plant, ‘Pandian explains’.

300 grains from 1 earhead, 4200kg from 1acre:
Urea @ 1bag/acre, Potash @ 2bag/acre was applied 20days after transplantation. The same was applied 45days after transplantation. Pests were not a great problem. Pesticide was sprayed only once. The plants grew up well with the Farm Yard Manure and daincha applied before transplanting. The villagers were astonished to see the number of tillers and the plant growth. Gains formed in all the tillers. Each earhead produced less than 300grains. During harvest it was found that the yield was 70bags (each bag holds 60kg). i.e., 4.2 tonnes/acre.

 During the cropping season, water source was shifted from pond to well as the former dried up. Irrigation was done once in 3 to 4 days. It was found that it survives well in drought also. In the conventional system the seed requirement is 30kg/acre. But in this case only 3kg was used. Moreover it has given 1tonne more per acre. Now our villagers are ready to use this hybrid. System of Rice Intensification is a new concept SRI combined with the new hybrid has given astonishing yields. Pandian is happy that he has been a part of this experimentation.
Duration-115 days, Yield-30% more    

Dr.Mohanasundaram, Professor and Head, Paddy Breeding station, TNAU, tells about CoRH 3 which is suitable for Kuruvai season. TNAU has release 4 hybrids so far. They are CoRH 1, CoRH 2 and ADT RH 1. CoRH 3 was released for cultivation in 2006. This hybrid has good cooking qualities over the previous hybrids and it is also resistant to earhead diseases, Tungra virus, Green leaf Hopper and Brown Leaf Hopper.
Yield: 12.7 tonnes/ha.

When compared with the other rice hybrids in India for yield and cooking quality, it was found that CoRH 3 was in the second position, due to its ability to grow in saline and alkaline soils, higher yield in system of Rice Intensification (12.7 tonne/ha), medium height, non lodging type and ability to grow in Sornavari, Kar, Kuruvai and Navarai season. The rice has good grinding properties hence traders are ready to pay more than the other rice hybrids. This, hybrid is superior to all other hybrids released so far says Dr. Mohanasundaram.

Contact : Pandiyan : 04636-291717.  


An Experience Of Precision Farming In Turmeric Cultivation Top

Theeran Chinnamalai Precision farming farmer’s welfare association,
Pullagoundan pudur,
Devarayapuram village,
Thondamuthur Union,
Coimbatore District.

We used to practice conventional farming in our lands. Before one year we have attended precision farming training conducted by the extension department of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. We came to know the details of precision farming and decided to start the cultivation in the precision farming. Then we approached the Horiculture Department and they advised us to follow the precision farming as a group to get high profit . So we formed a group with 21 members and practiced precision farming in 20 hectares of land in 2009 January. we planned to cultivate small onion, tomato, brinjal, cauliflower, chillies and turmeric in the Drip irrigation system. We visited to Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri where the precision farming is being practiced successfully. There we visited to fields and discussed with precision farming farmers got detailed information about precision farming from their experience. Then we cultivated crops with the help of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Horticulture Department .We conducted meetings every Wednesday to discuss about the cultivation practices and techniques. We followed the precision farming techniques like drip irrigation, Fertigation, farming with less work load etc.
I’’m A.Rajamani, a young farmer of precision farming group. I practiced precision farming in turmeric and I would like to share my experience of turmeric cultivation.
I sowed the turmeric rhizomes after plouhging the land well.  I also grew onion, coriander, chillies and redgram as intercrops. In precision farming, plants grew well without much competition of weeds. I got high yield by using sufficient water and fertilizers at correct time. Also, I got good quality farm produce from this cultivation. Particularly onion fetch high price in markets because of same size and good quality.  Retailers Came to field to take the produce directly. I got high profit of Rs. 9,60,000 per hectare in one year in turmeric cultivation. I got this huge profit because of shifting conventional cultivation into precision farming. We all the farmers of our group decided to follow precision farming in the forthcoming years. For that, preparatory works are going on.
At the present critical situation of farming, this type of good schemes will help farmers to get success in farming. Especially young farmers can follow this type of good schemes to lead a better profitable farming.

Cost of Cultivation

S.No.

Particulars

Cost

1.

Drip irrigation instatllation
Total cost:
Govt.Subsidy:


Rs.1,10,000
Rs.   28,500

Rs. 81,500

2.

Land Preparation
9 Ploughs:
5 Ploughs:
Forming ridges:


Rs.     3,000
Rs.     2,450
Rs.        900

 

Rs.    6,350

3.

Basal fertilizer
Farm Yard Manure:
D.A.P                       :


Rs.   30,000
Rs.     2,430

Rs.  32,430

4.

Seeds and seedlings
Turmeric seed:
Onion:
Coriander:
Chillies:


Rs.   25,000
Rs.   20,000
Rs.        100
Rs.       300

 

Rs.    45,400

5.

Transplanting
Turmeric:
Onion:
Coriander:
Chillies:


Rs.      2,000
Rs.      2,800
Rs.         200
Rs.         300

 

Rs.       5,300

6.

Weed control
Weedicide:
Spraying cost:
Hand weeding:


Rs.      1,700
Rs.         800
Rs.      3,000

 

Rs.       5,500

7.

Pest and disease management:
Onion:
Turmeric:


Rs.      7,500
Rs.      2,100

 

Rs.       9,600

8.

Top dressing
For Onion 10 times
For turmeric 10 times


Rs.    15,000
Rs.    20,000

 

Rs.     35,000

9.

Irrigation
 Approximately 200 days


Rs.    20,000

 

Rs.     20,000

10.

Harvesting
Turmeric
Onion
Coriander
Chillies
Redgram

 

Rs.    17,700
Rs.    12,500
Rs.         500
Rs.      2,000
Rs.         500

 

 

Rs.      33,200

11.

Processing
Onion storage
Turmeric boiling
Turmeric Polishing

 

Rs.      2,500
Rs.    17,500
Rs.      5,000

 

Rs.    25,000

12.

Farming expenses
Land leasing
Land tax
Electric motor protection
Power protection

 

Rs.    25,000
Rs.         120
Rs.    10,000
Rs.      1,000

 

Rs.    36,120

 

 

           Total

Rs.  3,35,400

13.

Income
Coriander leaves
Coriander seeds
Onion
Green Chillies
Red Chillies
Red gram
Turmeric


Rs.      2,000
Rs.      7,500
Rs. 2.47,000
Rs.    24,000
Rs.      1,500
Rs.      7,500
Rs.10,12,500

Rs. 13,02,000

14.

Net Profit
Total Income
Total Expenses


Rs.13,02,000
Rs.  3,35,400

Rs.9,66,600


Watermelon cultivation through precision farming - An experience Top

I have practiced the precision farming in watermelon in last year (2009). I would like to share the experience of watermelon cultivation.
I have cultivated watermelon in 2.2 hectares of my land through precision farming drip irrigation system. I used Numhems company’s Pukeeza variety in one hectare of land and in remaining one hectare of land I cultivated Apoorva variety of Seminis Company’s.
Cultivation Practices
In the beginning stage of cultivation, I ploughed the land twice per month and applied farm yard manure at the rate of 2 loads per hectare. Then ploughed the land to get good tilth. Before last ploughing, applied 6 bags of D.A.P.+ 3 bags of Potash. After leveling the land, I digged a small canal and placed lateral pipes above the canal. Fixed at the rate of 1 lateral pipe per 5 feet and Irrigated for few minutes. Then, sowed one seed at every place of dripper.
I got loan from Bank for one hectare and remaining capital spent by myself to install drip system. For that, horticulture department gave 258 Kg of Potassium Nitrate fertilizer. From the day of transplanting, I gave 5 Kg potassium Nitrate + 5 Kg Urea through drip irrigation at three days interval.
After 15 days of planting, I have removed the weeds by engaging labourers. First weeding done at 3 Days after planting. Then, made a pit near every plant. Mixed 4 bags of potash + 4 bags of Urea and placed evenly into every pit and closed. I adjusted the lateral pipes properly to irrigate over the pit. After 35 days of planting, applied 3 bags of 150 Kg Calcium ammonium Nitrate and irrigate the field evenly by the drippers. Second hand weeding done at 40th day of planting. After 30th day and 40th day of planting, applied 10 liters of Humic acid evenly by the drip irrigation. In between this practice, I applied Potassium Nitrate + Urea at the rate of 5 KG/ha at three days of interval.

  1. Sprayed Tata-Rogger @3ml/lit. at 12th day after planning by using hand pump.
  2. Then, sprayed Endosulfan @3ml/lit. and Imida Chloride @1ml/2lit at 19th day after planting by using hand pump.
  3. After 25th day of planting,

 Endosulfan @3ml/lit.
Imida Chloride @1ml/2lit.
Humic acid @3ml/lit.
Fantac @ 5ml/16 lit.  sprayed   by using the hand pump.

  1. 33 days after planting,
    Trizophos @5ml/lit.
    Voltage(Flora) @ 10ml/tank
    Humic Acid @ 3ml/lit
    Spic Sytozyme 3ml/lit.  sprayed by using the hand pump.

  2. 40 day after planting
    Trizophos @ 5ml/lit.
    Chlopyriphos @5ml/lit.
    Siaptron @ 2ml/lit. sprayed by using sprayer.

  3. 50 day after planting
    Voltage(Flora) @ 10ml/tank
    Biovita @ 5 ml/lit.
    Trizophos @ 5 ml/lit. sprayed by using sprayer.

Cost of Cultivation
1. Ploughing – 7 ploughs Rs. 10,000
2. Farm Yard Manure- 4 loads Rs.   4,000
3. D.A.P. Fertilizer -10 bags Rs.   5,000
4. Potash Fertilizer-7 bags Rs.   1,645
5. Urea Fertilizer-7 bags Rs.   1,820
6. Calcium Ammonium Nitrate- 3 bags Rs.   2,250
7. First hand weeding 

Rs.   1,600

8. Second hand weeding         Rs.   2,000
9. Forming ridges Rs.      600
10. Spraying pesticides Rs.  13,660
11. Labour cost for spraying Rs.   3,000
  Total Rs.  45,575

(Included the cost of 258 Kg Potassium Nitrate was given by horticulture department)

Income

Nunhems Pukeeza variety watermelon /1 hectare of land
At first harvest got 55 tones of watermelon and
I sold this at Rs.3100/ton  55*3100           

Rs.1,70,500

At second harvest got 6 tonnes of watermelon
and I sold this at Rs.1000/ton 6*1000                 

Rs.       6000

Total

Rs. 1,76,500

Seminis Apoorva Variety watermelon/1.2 hectare of land
At first harvest got 61 tonnes of watermelon and  I sold at Rs.3100/ton 61*3100

Rs.1,89,100

At second harvest got 4 tonnes of watermelon and sold this at Rs. 1000/ton 4*1000                                                 

Rs.      4,000

Total              

 Rs.1, 93,100


Income from 2.2 hectares of land totally  - Rs.1, 76,500 + Rs. 1, 93,100 = Rs.3,69,600
Expenditure = Rs. 45,575
Net income = Rs. 3, 24,025

Contact Address:
C.Muruga Perumal
S/o V.M. Chinnappan
Veppurchekkadi
Thandarampathu(T.K.)
Thiruvannamalai District-606706

 
Special Technologies  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
| Home | About Us | Success Stories | Farmers Association |
| Gallery | Message Board | TNAU Publications | FAQ’s | Queries | Downloads | Site Map | Disclaimer | Contact |
© All Rights Reserved. TNAU-2008.