Technology Red Gram
REDGRAM ( Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. )
SEASON AND VARIETIES
|Vaigasi Pattam (May-June)
|Krishnagiri, Dharmapuri, Salem, Erode, Coimbatore Dindigul, Theni and Madurai
||Co (Rg) 7
|Adi/Avanipattam (June - August)
|Vellore, Thiruvannamalai, Salem, Namakal, Perumbalur, Ariyalur, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni, Pudukkottai and Sivagangai June 15th to July 15th sowing July 15th to August 15th sowing
||Co 6 LRG 41 Vamban 2
|Purattasipattam (September – October)
|Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Dharmapuri, Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Theni Pudukkottai, Sivagangai, Perumbalur, Ariyalur
||Co (Rg) 7, APK 1 Co (Rg) 7
|Markazhipattam (Winter Irrigated)
|All districts except The Nilgiris and Kanyakumari
||Co (Rg) 7, VBN(Rg) 3, APK 1
|Chithiraipattam (Summer Irrigated)
|All districts except The Nilgiris and Kanyakumari Wetland bunds
||VBN (Rg) 3, APK 1 CO (Rg) 7 BSR 1 , Vamban 2,
IV. MANAGEMENT OF FIELD OPERATION
1. PREPARATION OF THE LAND
Prepare the land to fine tilth and apply 12.5 t FYM/ha or composted coir pith at the time of last ploughing and form ridges and furrows.
|Quantity of seed required kg/ha
||VBN (Rg) 3
[BSR 1 (Bund planting) 50 g/100 metre]
Select good seeds from pest and disease free plants.
2. SEED TREATMENT
Treat the seeds with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed 24 hours before sowing (or) with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4g/kg of seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. Bio control agents are compatible with biofertilizers. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with rhizobium. Fungicides and biocontrol agents are incompatible.
3. TREATMENT OF THE SEEDS WITH BIOFERTILIZER
- Fungicide (or) bio control agents treated seeds should be again treated with bacterial culture after 24 hours. Treat the seeds required for sowing 1 ha with Rhizobial culture CRR 6 / CPR 9, phosphobacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) developed at TNAU, with one packet each (200g). For red lateritic soil, Rhizobial culture VPR 1 is effective.
- Using rice kanji as binder, Rhizobium should be given as seed treatment only. For PSB and PGPR, if the seed treatment is not carried out, apply 10 packets (2 kg) of Phosphobacteria (Bacillusm megaterium) and 10 packets (2 kg) of PGPR (Pseudomonas sp.) with 25 kg of FYM and 25 kg of soil before sowing.
4. APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS
- Apply fertilizers basally before sowing.
Rainfed : 12.5 kg N + 25 kg P2O5 + 12.5 kg K2O +10 kg S*/ha
Irrigated : 25 kg N + 50 kg P2O5 + 25 kg K2O + 20 kg S*/ha
*Note : Applied in the form of gypsum if Single Super Phospate is not applied as a source of phosphorus
- Soil application of 25 kg ZnSo4/ha under irrigated condition
- Soil application of TNAU micronutrient mixture @ 5 kg/ha as Enriched FYM (Prepare enriched FYM at 1:10 ratio of MN mixture & FYM ; mix at friable moisture &incubate for one month in shade).
Foliar spray of 1% urea for yield improvement in black gram
For yield improvement through increasing the physiological, biochemical attributes, foliar spray of urea 1% on 30 and 45 days after sowing is recommended. For rice fallow pulses in Delta area, the present recommendation of foliar spray of 2% DAP may be continued.
Foliar spraying to mitigate moisture stress
Foliar spraying of 2%KCl + 100 ppm Boron during dry spell as mid season management practice in black gram during Rabi season is recommended to increase the yield over KCl spray alone .
Economizing the use of micronutrients through seed treatment for blackgram
Seed coating with biofertilizers and micronutrients viz., Zn, Mo & Co @ 4, 1, 0.5 g/kg of seed is recommended.
Nitrogen substitution by organic sources for pulses
50 per cent nitrogen can be substituted through organic source (850 kg of vermicompost per hectare).
Lime application is recommended for pulses with soil pH less than 6.0.
5. SOWING THE SEEDS
Dibble the seeds adopting the following spacing.
||45 cm x 30 cm
||60 cm x 30 cm
||120 cm x 30 cm
|Vamban (Rg) 3, APK 1
||45 cm x 20 cm
||60 cm x 20 cm
||120 cm x 30 cm
|Co 6, Vamban 2, LRG 41
||90 cm x 30 cm
||120 - 150 x 30 cm
||240 cm x 30 cm
||60 cm for BSR 1 and 30cm for others.
6. WEED MANAGEMENT
- Pre emergence application of Pendimethalin 0.75 kg/ha (2.5 litres/ha) on 3 DAS mixed with 500 litres of water using Backpack/Knapsack/Rocker sprayer using flat fan deflector type of nozzle. Then irrigate the field. Following this, one hand weeding may be given on 30-35 DAS
- If herbicide is not given, give two hand weedings on 20 and 35 DAS.
- In case of labour problem, apply Pendimethalin 0.75 kg (2.5 lit/ha) on 3 DAS followed by early post emergence application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha on 15 DAE of weeds (2 - 3 leaves stage of weeds) and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha on 20 DAE of weeds (2 - 3 leaves of weeds) are recommended for controlling broad leaved and grassy weeds, respectively. If both the weeds are present, tank mix application of Imazethapyr @ 60 g ai/ha and quizalofop ethyl @ 50 g ai/ha at 15 - 20 days after emergence of weeds (2 - 3 leaves stage of weeds) is recommended.
- Apply PE metalachlor 1.0 kg ha-1 on 3 DAS followed by one hand weeding on 40 DAS. Note: At the time of herbicide application, there should be sufficient soil moisture.
7. WATER MANAGEMENT
Irrigate immediately after sowing, 3rd day after sowing, bud initiation, 50 % flowering and pod development stages. Water stagnation should be avoided.
8. SPRAYING OF DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE OR UREA, NAA AND SALICYLIC ACID
- Foliar spray of NAA 40 mg/l once at pre-flowering and another at 15 days thereafter
- Foliar spray of DAP 20 g/l or urea 20 g/l once at flowering and another at 15 days there after
- Foliar spray of salicylic and 100 mg/litre once at preflowering and another at 15 days there after
9. HARVESTING THE CROP
- Harvest the whole plants when 80% of the pods mature.
- Heap for 2 – 3 days
- Dry and process.
- Raising one row of long duration redgram varieties as inter crop for every six rows of groundnut (6:1) is recommended for rainfed crops.
- Raising one row of short and medium duration redgram as inter crop for every four rows of groundnut (4:1) is recommended for rainfed as well as for irrigated crops.
- Multistoreyed cropping: For rainfed Vertisols of Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli, Thoothukudi districts recording more than 300 mm of rainfall during the crop growth period, multistoreyed cropping system Agathi + Redgram (CO 5) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) is highly profitable. (Agathi in I tier with 1 x 1 m spacing - Redgram in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 20 cm - Cotton in the III tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm - Blackgram in the IV tier with the spacing of 30 x 10 cm).
For rainfed Vertisols receiving less than 300 mm of rainfall, Agathi + Sorghum (CO 26) + Cotton (MCU 10) + Blackgram (CO 5) system is ideal. For both systems, apply 40 kg N and 20 kg P2O5/ha. (Agathi in I tier with a spacing of 1 x 1 m - sorghum in II tier with a spacing of 45 x 15 cm - cotton in III tier with the spacing of 45 x 15 cm and Blackgram in IV tier with 30 x 10 cm).
- Select only long duration redgram varieties
- Transplant within the month of August either under rainfed condition or under irrigated condition
- Select poly bag with a size of 6x4 inches and 200 micron thickness
- Fill the poly bag with native soil: Sand: FYM @1:1:1 and put 3-4 holes in the bottom to avoid water stagnation
- Soak the seeds in 0.2% Calcium chloride for one hour and dry it under shade for 7 hours to harden the seeds
- Treat the hardened seeds with T. viride @ 4g/kg and 100 g Rhizobium and 100 g phosphobacterium. Sow the seeds @2/poly bag at 1 cm depth
- Sow the seeds in polybags 30-45 days prior to transplanting
- Plough the field deeply to get fine tilth followed by 2-3 harrowings at 3 weeks prior to transplanting
- In medium to deep soils for raising long duration varieties, dig 15 sqcm pits at 5’ X 3’ for pure crops and 6’ x 3’ for intercropping under irrigated condition. In rainfed condition dig the pits at a spacing of 5’x3’. For short duration varieties dig 15 sq cm pits at 3’ x 2’ spacing.
- Under water logging condition, form furrows before digging pits
- Apply inorganic fertilizers @ 25:50:25 kg NPK /ha at 20-30 days after planting as urea, DAP and potash around the seedlings
- Apply ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ ha as basal along with FYM or sand
- Nip (removal of top 5 cm) the plants at 20 – 30 days after planting to arrest the terminal growth
- Spray planofix @ 0.5 ml/litre to control flower dropping
11. NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS
Redgram / Greengram/Blackgram/Cowpea
Zinc: Symptom appears within a month of sowing. The plants are stripped with yellow or pale green foliage. Veins and mid ribs of the leaves are green although tissue around them becomes yellow and bronzed.
Iron: Reduced concentration of Chlorophyll in leaves - pale leaf colour may be indistinguishable from deficiency of nitrogen or other elements.
Foliar spray of TNAU Pulse Wonder @ 2 kg/acre in 200 litres of water at flower initiation stage decreases flower shedding, increases yield and offers moisture stress tolerance
||Tender beans are pinkish green in colour and can be cooked as curry or added to Kurma or Sabji. When the beans mature they can be used as Dhal. Recommended for growing in kitchen gardens, backyards, farm road sides, as border crop in sugarcane, banana and betelvine and as a shade crop in turmeric and as a bund crop in paddy double cropped wetlands.
||June – July
|Height of the plant
||150 - 200 cm
|Number of branches
|| 7 - 10
||Five months from date of sowing
||Small pits are dug 90 cm apart and the pits are filled with a mixture of well decomposed manure or compost and soil.
||Urea 15 g and superphosphate 30 g / pit.
||Two to three seeds are dibbled per pit and watered. When they grow six inches height one plant may be retained in each pit.
||If harvested when the pods are tender the beans will be fit for making curry. Each plant will yield two to three kg of green pods at an average seed yield of 750 g to one kg per plant. After the first harvest the branches are pruned and allowed to grow further. In another 45 - 60 days the plants produce the second flush. For pure crop, about
3 kg of seeds may be required.
Post Harvest Technology