Plant Nutrition :: Mineral Nutrition


1. What is the reason for the marginal leaf drying in rice?

Due to the deficiency of potassium nutrient, the entire leaf margin is drying

2. Why the rice leaf color turns to yellowing?

If yellowing is occurring in old leaves, it is due to nitrogen deficiency. If it is young leaves, that may be due to iron deficiency

3. Give the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency in crops?

    • Chlorosis (yellowing of leaves)
    • Stunted growth/ poor plant growth
    • Poor tillering / branching

4. How to identify phosphorus deficiency?

    • Poor root growth
    • Pinkish pigmentation occurs on old leaves as well as the base of the shoot
    • Stunted growth

5. What is mean by ‘Tea Yellowing’?

Yellowing of leaves in Tea is due to sulfur deficiency.

6. Give the typical examples of iron Chlorosis present in plants

  • sugarcane
  • sorghum

7. What is mean by ‘khaira’?

It is the deficiency symptoms of zinc which occurs in rice plant.

8. Which nutrient deficiency causes cooking of leaves?


9. Fruit cracking appears due to what nutrient deficiency?


10. “Phagala Blight of sugarcane” caused by which Nutrient?

Manganese deficiency

11. How to control iron chlorosis in crops?

Foliar spraying of 250-500g of ferrous sulphate dissolved in 100 lit of water.

12. Give the common symptoms of boron deficiency in crops

  • dearth of apical meristem followed b sprouting of lateral buds
  • Leaves / petioles/stems may be thickened, wrinkled, curled and chlorotic.
  • The fleshy pent may show brown flecks, necrosis, cracks or dry not
  • Reduced flower and fruit set

13. Which nutrient is essential for translocation sugar in plant system?


14. Rough skin of guava and citrus is caused by which nutrient?

Boron deficiency

15. Name the deficiency symptoms of boron in grapes?

‘Hen and chicken’ berries

16. How to control the boron deficiencies in citrus, guava and grapes?

  • Citrus: Foliar spray of 0.3% Boric acid (3g in 1 lit)
  • Guava: Foliar spray of 1% Borax (10 g in 1 lit)
  • Grapes: Foliar spray of 1% Borax (10 g in 1 lit)

17. How to control zinc deficiency in banana and mango?

Banana : Foliar spraying of 0.5% zinc sulphate (5g in 1 lit) or apply 30 g zinc sulphate per plant

18. Which nutrient causes button shedding in coconut?


19. ‘Whip tail’ in cauliflower is occurring by which nutrient?

Molybdenum deficiency

20. How to control ‘rosette’ appearance in citrus?

Foliar application of copper sulphate @ 5-10 g in 10 lit of water

21. How to correct the zinc deficiency in onion?

Seed treatment with 0.01% zinc sulphate (1g zinc sulphate dissolved in 10 lit of water) or Foliar application of 0.1% zinc sulphate (1g zinc sulphate in 1 lit of water)

22. Give the remedial measures of boron deficiency in cabbage, cauliflower, tomato and chilies.

Nursery area: 40 g Borax per cent
Main field: Borax @ 0.6 kg to 1.2 kg per ha

23. Which nutrient deficiency produces “little leaf” in plant species?

Zinc deficiency

24. What are the physiological disorders occur in Mango?

  • Spongy tissue
  • Mango malformation
  • Biennial bearing
  • Fruit crop
25. Why spongy tissues occur in Mango?

The activity of ripening enzymes due to high temperature and post harvest exposure to sunlight

26. What are the symptoms of Mango malformation? 

  • Compact mass of male flowers, greenish in color and stunted growth
  • Thickening and shortening of main and secondary rachis
  • Relatively longer bracts, sepals and petals as compound to normal flowers

27. What are all the factors which cause mango fruit drop?

  • Embryo abortion
  • Climatic factors
  • Disturbed water relation
  • Lack of “nutrition’
  • pest and disease attack

28. Name the serious physiological disorder in mango?

Black tip in a serious disorder, particularly in the cultivar Dahemi.

29. Mention the symptoms of mango black tip?

The damage to the fruits gets initiated right at marble stage and finally black. At this stage/ further growth and development of the fruit is retarded and black ring at the tip extends towards the upper part of the fruit.

30. How to control the mango physiological disorders?

Spongy tissue
Post harvest exposure to low temperature b/w 10-15c for 10-18 hrs.
Spraying of Plano fix (200mglit ppm) during first week of October followed by  
 deblossming at bud burst stage.
Biennial bearing
Deblossoming during ‘On’ year
Soil application of paclobutrazol @ 4g/tree in the month of September
Fruit crops
Foliar application of alar 2 100 ppm (100 mg /lit) or NAA 200 ppm (planofix 200mg /lit) at pea stage of fruit.

Black tip

  • Spraying of Borax @ 1% (10g ;ot) at or pea stage followed by two more sprang at 15 days interval
  • caustic soda@ 0.8% (8g/lit) or washing soda @ 0.5% (5g/lit)
  • Planting of mango on Chan in North-south direction and 5-6 km away from the brick kiln

31. What is mean by blossom end rot?
It is the physiological orders which occurs in tomato due to calcium deficiency


  • Maintain uniform soil moisture during dry weather through mulching
  • Avoid over fertilizing with nitrogen
  • Foliar application of calcium sulphate @ 1% (10 g/lit)

32. List out the physiological disorders present in grapes and give the connection measures.

  • Berry shrivel
  • Shattering
  • Water berry

Berry shrivel

  • after inspiring begins, berries become flaccid and sucker
  • Cause in unknown. But application of gibberellin’s @ 16g/acre will reduce shrivel by 50 to 70% compare to the untreated.


  • shatter refers to loose berries
  • Grinding at grunt set to increase berries weight and incurrence the strength of being attachment to the capstem and may reduces the shatter potential
  • Basing the clusters reduces the shatter during packing

Water berry

  • There is no known control. However, it is recommended to avoid over fertilization with nitrogen’
  • Foliar nutrient spray of nitrogen should be avoided in water berry-pore vineyard.
  • Ammonium (or) Urea fertilizers should not be applied via drip irrigation near the beginning (or) during fruit ripening
33. Give the symptoms about bitter bit of apple.

Small brown lessons develop in the flesh of the fruit
Tissue below the skin becomes dark
Water soaked spots on the skin rear the calyx. These spots turn darker and become more sunken than the surrounding skin and are filling developed after one to two month in storage.

Correction measure

Calcium chloride and calcium nitrate spray during summer
Post harvest dipping
Drenching with calcium chloride (2-3%)

34. How to control internal browning (or) brown heart in apple?
  • Avoid harvesting of ova nature fruit
  • Maintain Co2 concentration below 1% in controlled atmosphere storage and win storey.
  • Proper temperature management and good ventilation
  • Avoid heavy wax coating and thoroughly and rapidly cool fruit after waxing and packaging.
35. Mention the physiological disorders occur in pears
  • Core breakdown Watery Breakdown
  • Flesh spot Decay
  • Internal browsing
  • Senescent scald

36. List out the physiological disorders found in tomatoes

    • Blossom drop 
    • fruit cracks
    • Blossom end rot
    • Cat facing
    • Sunscald         
    • Puffiness

37. Give the symptom of blossom end not

    • brown (or) black spot develops on the blossom end of the fruit
    • Secondary organisms invade the affected tissue and cause the fruit to rot.

38. What is the reason for fruit cracking in tomato?

    • Heavy rain fall (or) irrigation followed by long dry period
    • Fruit exposed to direct sun light
    • Also due to boron deficiency

Control measures:

    • Mulching during dry weather to maintain uniform soil moisture
    • Growing resistant Varieties

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