Plant Nutrition :: Physiological disorders


Physiological Disorder

Physiological disorder is the abnormal growth pattern or abnormal external or internal conditions of fruits due to adverse environmental conditions such as deviation from normal state of temperature, light, moisture, nutrient, harmful gases and inadequate supply of growth regulators.

a) Disorders associated with low temperature

1. Leaf chlorosis and frost banding

Chlorosis was caused by a disruption of chloroplasts caused by winter cold. Green chlorophyll pigments are often converted in to yellow pigment namely chlorophyllins. Leaf may appear with distinct bleached bands across the blade of young plants called frost banding eg: sugarcane, wheat and barley.

2. Leaf necrosis and malformations

Spring frost causes various types and degree of injury including cupping, crinkling finishing and curling of leaves of apple trees and stone fruits. The distortion is caused by death of the developed tissues before the expansion of leaves.

3. Stem disorders

Frost cracks develop when tree trunk or limps lost their heat too rapidly. The outer layer of bark and wood cool most rapidly and subjected to appreciable tension causing marked shrinkage and cracking following a sudden temperature drop. Affected timber is of poor quality.

b) Disorders associated with high temperature

1. Leaf scorch

High temperature causes leaf scorch directly or indirectly by stimulating excessive evaporation and transpiration.  Tip burn of potato is a widespread example for this disorder.

2. Sunscald

In leaf vegetable crops like lettuce and cabbage, when leaves on the top of the head are exposed to intense heat, water soaked lesions or blistered appearance occur These irregular shaped areas become bleached and parched later.

3. Water core

In fruit crop like Tomato, exposure to high temperature causes death of the outer cells of fruit skin. Subsequently corky tissue occurs beneath the skin, with watery appearance of the flest near the core of the fruits faster. Often light stress is coupled with heat stress eg. sun scald of bean, sun burning of soybean and cowpea. In flower crop like chrysanthemum, increase in light intensity affects flower bud formation. Reproduction phase does not commence and modified into leaf like bracts.

c) Physiological disorders caused by light stress

Adverse light intensity causes impaired growth and reduced vigour. Subsequently leaves gradually lose green colour, turning pale green to yellow, stems may dieback little every year. Insufficient light limits photosynthesis, causing food reserves to be depleted.

d) Hen and chicken disorder

This disorder is cause by the deficiency of boron resulting in to more number of     undeveloped round or oblate short berries with few berries attaining   the normal shape characteristic of the variety.

Pear: Water core
Apple: Bitter bit
Tomato: Blossom ent rot

Tomato: Heat injury
Sweet potato: Chilling injury
Potato: Black heart


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