Agriculture
Crop Production :: Forage Crops :: Fodder Maize

 

Fodder Maize

Season and Varieties

Season : Throughout the year for fodder in all districts under irrigated condition.
Varieties : African Tall (Composite variety)

Yield Potential and Quality Characters

Characters African Tall
Green fodder yield (t/ha) 60.00
Crude protein (%) 9.80
Dry matter (%) 17.65

 Crop Production:

 1.Preparatory Cultivation

  • Form ridges and furrows 60cm apart after ploughing and incorporation of FYM

2.Seed Rate

  • 40 Kg/ha

3. Spacing

  • 30 x 15 cm.

4. Manures and fertilizers

  • Basal
    FYM 25t/ha ; 30:40:20 Kg NPK/ha
    Top dressing
    30Kg N/ha after 30 days after sowing
    .

5. Weed Management

  • First weeding at 25th DAS. Further weeding based on necessity.

6. Water Management

  • Immediately after planting; life irrigation on 3rd day and thereafter once in 10 days.

7. Harvest

  • when the cob is in the milky stage.

8. Green fodder yield

  • 60t/ha.
Note:     
* Fodder Maize can be intercropped with CO 5 or CO (FC) 8 Cowpea at 3:1 ratio and harvested together to provide nutritious fodder.

  • TNAU vermicompost at 5 t/ha + 75% recommended dose of fertilizer for intercropping of maize and cowpea produces green fodder yield of 105 t/ha/yr ( 3 crops/ year)  which is sufficient to maintain 7 adults and 3 young cattles. The dung obtained from these animals can be used for on farm production of 19.4 tonnes of vermicompost per year.

 Crop Protection:

Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

Symptoms

  • Windowing symptom.
  • Heavy defoliation and large amount of faecal matter in the plant whorl.
  • Bore holes in the developing internodes, damage on ear head.

Identification of Insect Pests

Egg : Dome shaped with flattened base.

Larva : Greenish with black head later darker, four black spots at tail end, White inverted Y mark on head.

Pupa : Obtect type and reddish brown in color.

Adult : Forewing : Male: Brown Female: Grayish brown Hind wing: Male and Female: Iridescent silver-white

Management

  • Deep ploughing and application of neemcake @ 250 kg per ha.
  • Timely sowing and avoid staggered sowing. Follow crop rotation .
  • Seed Treatment: Thiamethoxam 30 FS @ 10g or Beauveria bassiana @ 10 g per kg of seed or cyantraniliprole 19.8 % + thiomethoxam 19.8 % @ 4 ml/kg seed .
  • Border crop: cowpea, sunflower, gingelly and marigold .
  • Spray with Azadirachtin 1500 ppm at early stage.

Anthracnose and red rot (Colletotrichum graminicolum)

Field diagnostic symptoms

  • Small red or purple spots on both surfaces of the leaf.
  • White spot encircled by brown margin.

Favourable conditions

  • Continuous rain, temperature of 28-30 C and High Relative humidity.

Survival and Mode of Spread

  • Spread through seed and air-borne conidia and infected plant debris.

Integrated Disease Management

  • Field sanitation and rouging of infested plant debris.
  • Crop rotation
  • Use resistant varieties or hybrids .
  • Seed treatment: Captan or Thiram at 2 g/kg.
  • Apply Bacillus subtilis or Trichoderma viride 2.5 kg/ha with 250 kg well decomposed Farm Yard Manure.
Seed Production

Land Requirement

  • Land should be free from volunteer plant.
  • The previous crop should not be the same variety or other varieties of the same crop.
  • It can be the same variety if it is certified as per the procedures of certification agency.

Isolation

  • For certified quality seed production, a distance of 200 m (African Tall) all around the field from the same and other varieties of the crop should adopted.
  • Seed rate :20 kg/ha.
  • Spacing : 60 x 20 cm (65 x 15 cm)
  • Fertilizer requirement: Apply NPK @ 175 : 90 : 90 kg / ha + 25 kg ZnSO4 / ha as basal

Harvest

  • Seeds attained physiological maturity on 40th day after anthesis.

Seed Treatment

  • Carbendazim @ 2 g / kg of seed along with carbaryl @ 200 mg / kg of seed.
  • Treat the seeds with halogen mixture (CaOCl2 + CaCO3 + arappu leaf powder mixed in the ratio of 5:4:1 @ 3 g / kg as eco-friendly treatment.

Storage

  • Short term storage in gunny/cloth bag (8 - 9 months) with 9-10% moisture content .
  • Medium term storage in polylined gunny bag (12 - 15 months) with 8 - 9 % moisture.
  • Long term storage in 700 gauge polythene bag (> 15 months) with <8% moisture. .
Updated on Apr 2023