Breeding management of cattle and buffaloes


Reproduction is an important consideration in the economics of cattle production. In the absence of regular breeding and calving at the appropriate time, cattle rearing will not be profitable. A healthy calf each year is the usual goal. This is possible only by increasing the reproductive efficiency of the animals.

Successful reproduction encompasses the ability to mate, the capacity to conceive and to nourish the embryo and deliver the viable young ones at the end of a normal gestation period. In fact, interruption in this chain of events leads to failure of the cow either to conceive or the embryo to die or to have a premature delivery of the foetus.

The reproductive efficiency is a complex phenomenon controlled by both genetic and non-genetic factors, the non- genetic factors being climate, nutrition, and level of management. The reproductive efficiency varies not only between species and breeds but also among the animals within the same breed. Even the best feeding and management can not coax performance beyond the genetic limit of an inferior animal. Improving the genetic merits of livestock populations is important at all levels of management. A sound breeding programme is a necessary part of the total animal production system.

  Breeding Efficiency

Factors Affecting Breeding Efficiency

The factors which influence the breeding efficiency of cattle are as follows:

1. Number of ova

The first limitation on the breeding efficiency of fertility of an animal is the number of functional ova released during each cycle of ovulation. Ovulation is the process of shedding of ovum from the Graffian follicle. In the case of cow, usually a single ovum is capable of undergoing fertilization only for a period of 5-10 hours. Therefore, the time of mating insemination in relation to ovulation is important for effective fertilization.

2. Percentage of fertilization

The second limitation is fertilization of ova. Failure to be fertilized may result from several causes. The spermatozoa may be few or low in vitality. The service may be either too early or too late. so that the sperms and eggs do not meet at the right moment, to result in fertilization.

3. Embryonic death

From the time of fertilization till birth, embryonic mortality may occur due to a variety of reasons. Hormone deficiency or imbalance may cause failure of implantation of fertilized ova which die subsequently. Death may occur as a result of lethal genes for which the embryos are homozygous. Other causes may be accidents in development, over-crowding in the uterus, insufficient nutrition or infections in tile uterus.

4. Age of first pregnancy

Breeding efficiency may be lowered seriously by increasing the age of first breeding. Females bred at a lower age are likely to appear stunted during the first lactation, but their mature size is affected little by their having been bred early.

5. Frequency of pregnancy

The breeding efficiency can be greatly enhanced by lowering the interval between successive pregnancies. The wise general policy is to breed for the first time at an early age and to rebreed at almost the earliest opportunity after each pregnancy. In this way the lifetime efficiency is increased. Cows can be rebred in 9-12 weeks after parturition.

6. Longevity

The length of life of the parent is an important part of breeding efficiency, because the return over feed cost is greater in increased length of life. Also, it affects the possibility of improving the breed. The longer the life of the parents, the smaller the percentage of cows needed for replacement every year. 


Management Practices to Improve Breeding Efficiency  

Some of the management suggestions which will tend to improve breeding efficiency of cattle are listed below.

    1. Keep accurate breeding records of dates of heat, service and parturition. Use records in predicting the dates of heat and observe the females carefully for heat.
    2. Breed cows during near the end of mid heat or heat period.
    3. Have females with abnormal discharges examined and treated by veterinarian.
    4. Call a veterinarian to examine females not settled after three services.
    5. Get the females checked for pregnancy at 45 days to 60 days after breeding.
    6. Buy replacements only from healthy herds and test them before putting them in your herd.
    7. Have the females give birth in isolation, preferably in a parturition room and clean up and sterilize the area once parturition is over.
    8. Follow a programme of disease prevention, test and vaccination for diseases affecting reproduction and vaccinate the animals against such diseases.
    9. Practice a general sanitation programme.
    10. Supply adequate nutrition.
    11. Employ the correct technique.
    12. Provide suitable shelter management.
    13. Detect silent or weak heat, by using a teaser bull.

  Selection and Culling

Selection and culling are the two sides of the same coin. Selection is the process in which certain individuals in a population are included for becoming the parents of the next generation. Automatically some are excluded for the purpose which are culled. Natural selection has been going on since ages where animals which were stronger, which had better survivability and which were in more unison with the environment around them, found a better chance to reproduce.

Thus certain genes for certain characters got more chance to be selected to form individuals in the subsequent generations. Since domestication of cattle, man has been looking for superior phenotypes in traits useful to him and selecting such animals to form the parental generation. This is man made artificial selection. Now man has progressed one step further in making estimates of genotypes from the study of phenotypes and making use of that information (in artificial) selection. 

A. Selection methods

There is only one way to select and that is to "keep the best and cull the poorest. The various selection methods are techniques for identifying or estimating the genetic values of individual candidates for selection. The procedure discussed here apply to selection for quantitative trails. 

1. Performance testing

Performance test is a measure of the phenotypic value of the individual candidates for selection. Since the phenotypic value is determined by both genetic and environmental influences, the performance test is an estimate, not a measure of the genetic value. The occurrence of this estimate depends upon the heritability of the trait i.e. on the degree to which the genetic value is modified by the environmental influences. 


      • Among simple procedures, the performance test is the most accurate.
      • Environmental influences can be minimised by testing candidates for selection in the same pen or in similar environmental conditions.
      • The measure is direct, not on a relative basis.
      • All candidates for selection can be tested in contrast to progeny testing where only a parent can be tested.
      • Generation intervals are usually short.
      • Testing can usually be done on the farm under normal management conditions.


      • Accuracy become low when heretability is low.
      • Phenotypes are not available for one sexor in sex limited traits such as milk yield.
      • Traits which are not expressed until maturity may become expensive or difficult to manage by performance tests since most selection decisions must be made before maturity. 

        Performance tests should be the backbone of most selection programmes. Although much publicity has been given to other selection methods, it remains a fact that most of the progress in livestock improvement to date has been due to selection on the individual's own phenotype i.e. performance test.

B. Pedegree selection

A pedegree is a record of an individual's ancestors including its parents. This information is valuable because each individual possesses a sample half of the genes from each parent. If we can precisely know an individual's phenotype, little is gained by considering pedegree in selection. Pedegree considerations are useful when we do not have sufficient accurate records of production of the individual. Also, it is useful in the early selection when the traits in question might not have expressed themselves. It is also useful for selection of males when the traits selected for are expressed only by the female such as milk production in dairy cattle. 


        • It provides information when performance tests are not available for the candidates.
        • It provides information to supplement performance test information.
        • It allows selection to be completed at a young age. Pedegree records may be used to select animals for performance or progeny testing in multi-stage selection scheme.
        • It allows selection of bulls can be selected on the milk records of their female relatives.


        • Accuracy, relative to alternative selection procedures is usually low.
        • Too much emphasis on relatives, especially remote relatives, greatly reduces genetic progress.
        • Progeny of favoured parents are often environmentally favoured.
        • Relatives often make records under quite different environments, thus introducing non random bases into the selection system.

C. Progeny testing

In this method we evaluate the breeding value by a study of the expression of the trait in its offsprings. Individuality tells us what an animal seems to be, his pedegree tells us what he ought to be, but the performance of his progeny tells us what he is.

Progency testing is, of course, a two-stage selection system because some preliminary selection determines which animals first produce progeny followed by further culling of these which produce poor progeny

Advantages of progney testing
a. High accuracy when many progeny are obtained. 

Disadvantages progney testing
a. Long generation interval.
b. Requires high reproductive rate.
c. Low selection intensity.

D. Show ring selection

Selection on the basis of show ring performance has had considerable value in the past. Essentially this selection has been directed towards bringing the conformation of the animal to some ideal conformation.

This improvement has been based on two goals:
(i) improvement conformation, and
(ii) correlated response.

Improvement of conformation has economic value because a part of the sale price is determined by the conformation of the individual. The ideal type was chosen so that, in the opinion of the judges, the animal possessing this conformation was most likely to be a profitable producer. In other words, the judges were attempting to stress traits of conformation which are corrected with productive ability. 

With the advent of record keeping it was found that direct selection for performance traits resulted in much faster progress than selection through correlated conformation traits. Also, when subjected to intensive study, many of the correlations between performance and show ring were found to be of non-genetic origin.

If the correlations are of genetic origin, direct selection for performance should improve conformation as well as the reverse situation. The show ring has been a good forum for discussion of what constitutes ideal type and good management and has produced dramatic changes in the conformation of some species.

This has resulted primarily from education of the breeders, however, for most animals which are presented in the ring are good and selection differential among these animals is usually so small as to produce little change. 

Advantages of show ring selection

1. It enables breeders to exchange ideas and experience.
2. It allows comparisons among superior animals both within and between breeds.
3. It allows new breeders to make contact with established breeders.

Disadvantages of show ring selection

1. Emphasis is usually placed on traits of little economic importance.
2. Clever fitting and showmanship can mask defects of various kinds.
3. Differences between exhibited animals are usually small.
4. Conformation and production traits usually have low genetic correlations.

Choosing Traits for selection  

  1. Many factors enter into the choice of traits to be selected for. The following ones are the most important.

    1. The goal of the selection programme
    2. The habitability of the traits
    3. The economic value of improvement in each trait.
    4. The range in variation of each trait.
    5. Correlation among the traits. 
    6. The cost of the selection programme.

    a. Selection goals

    Often the goal of the selection programme makes the choice of traits quite obvious. The breeder of the race horses must select for speed if he is to be successful and his choice of traits are limited to alternative ways to measure speed. Similarly, the breeder of dairy cattle generally sets out to breed cows with superior milk production characteristics. Thus, his choice of traits is specified by his selection goals. 

    b. Heritability

    Heritability is defined to be the fraction of the superiority of parents which is, on the average, transmitted to their off-springs. To explain habitability in simpler words: Heritability tells us how much of the observable differences in the animal is caused by genes and how much by environment. 

    Heritability for the same characteristics may vary from one population to another and also may vary from one characteristic to another even ink the same population. The ability to recognise the breeding values or transmitting abilities of animals is closely associated with heritability. If the heritability is high for a trait, we can proceed straight way to adopt a system of mass selection of superior animals, with little attention to pedegree information, collateral relatives, progeny test or inbreeding and genetic improvement in that trait is low, genetic progress may be disappointing with mass selection and greater attention should be paid to pedegree records, family information and use of progeny tests. 

    c. Variability of the trait

    Selection operates on the variability in expression of the trait uniform for a trait. there will be little selection response because any selected groups of parents will not be much better than those not selected. Some traits are much more valuable than others. thus the innate variation of the traits should be carefully considered in choosing traits for selection. 

    Variation can be increased by improving exotic types and sometimes this can result in new combination of genes which are superior to either parent type. 

    d. Correlated traits

    Sometimes traits tend to be inherited together. These correlations may arise in several ways. 

        The traits may be of different measures of some underlying trait. For example. weight and height are both measures of body size. thus taller animals are usually heavier and these two traits are said to be correlated.

        If the same genes produce response in several traits. those traits will be correlated. This condition is referred to as pleiotrophy. 

        Correlated responses are common. Selection for increased milk yield produces a correlated decrease in the per cent of fat in the milk of dairy cows. Thus. both direct and correlated responses result from selection and some correlated responses are positive while others negative. 

        Correlated response may be advantageously used in selection programme. For example feed efficiency is expensive to measure because it requires both weight gain and feed intake on each individual, whereas weight gain requires neither feed weight nor individual feeding.

      In summary. definite goals are essential for a successful selection programme. The success in achieving these goals depends on the existence of genetic differences. the degree to which phenotype differences are heritable and the correlated responses in other traits. In comparing the selection programme, the breeder must evaluate the value of the expected response and the cost of the programme relative to the costs and responses of alternative selection programmes.

   Systems of Breeding

The ultimate aim of the breeder is to evolve outstanding and improved type of animals which can render better service to man. Selection and system of breeding constitute the only tools available to the breeder for improvement of animals. Since new genes can not be created though they can be recombined into more desirable groupings. 

Systems of breeding has been broadly divided as under
1. In breeding -breeding of the related animals.
2. Out breeding -breeding of the unrelated animals.

A. lnbreeding

Inbreeding is a mating system in which individuals mated are more closely related than the average of the population from which they come. It means the mating of males and females which are related. Animals deemed to be related only when they have one or more ancestors in common on the first 4-6 generations of their pedegree. The intensity of inbreeding depends upon the degree of relationship. Close inbreeding denotes mating of closely related individuals like dam to son (mother x son) or sire to daughter (father x daughter) or full brothers to full sisters. 

In breeding makes more pairs of genes in the population homozygous. Wherever there is inbreeding, there will be one or more common ancestors from which, part of the gene samples (gametes) have arisen. 

Inbreeding can again be divided into following groups:

   Improvement of Dairy Cattle in India

The dairy farming business in many tropical and subtropical countries are characterized by large number of cattle and low yield of milk. For example, India possesses over 230 million heads of cattle and buffaloes, which comes to more than one-fifth of the total world population of cattle and buffaloes. The average annual production of an Indian cow is only 173 kg as against an average yield per milking cow of 3,710 kg in Denmark, 3,250 kg in Switzerland and 3280 kg in the U.S.A. 

Twenty six breeds of cattle and seven breeds of buffaloes have been recognised at present in India. However, only a small proportion of the cattle and buffaloes belong to these purebred breeds. The vast majority (more than 75%) are intermixed and do not belong to any specific breed. They are classed as nondescript. 

Cattle remain the draught animals in many of these regions. As a result selection over the past many centuries has been to meet the requirements of draught and agriculture. Selection pressure was applied for better capacity and fitness. This has resulted in producing excellent draught animals. Unfortunately, milk production and draught capacity are traits which are genetically negatively correlated. When milk yield capacity goes up, draught capacity goes down and vice versa. As a result attempts to develop and improve some of the dual purpose breeds which are useful for both milk and work, could not progress very far. We could have only a compromise in dual purpose breeds with medium milk production and medium work capacity. If further genetic improvement of either of the two traits is attempted, a set back with respect to the other should be expected. 

In India, at present many milch cows yield less than one kg. milk per day. Buffaloes are better milk producers. About 18 -20% of the milch buffaloes yield more than 2 kg per day and only 19% yield less than one kg per day. The reasons for such a low level of production are listed below. 

  • Acute shortage of feed and fodders.
  • Excess cattle numbers.
  • Poor genetic potential for milk production.
  • The smallness of land holdings and consequently small dairy units make them economically unviable. It also acts against introduction of advanced techniques.
  • Adverse climatic conditions of the tropics.
  • Poor grazing and environmental factors.
  • Inadequate marketing facilities for the products.

The diversity of the breeding stock and the variation available in economic traits of cattle and buffaloes in the country offer greater challenge and scope for their improvement for the animal breeder. At the same time, the task of improving the genetic make up of a large number of extremely diverse, non-descript low producers is a colossal one. Anyone system of breeding can not be applied uniformly to all the animals in all the areas. 

   Important Reproductive details / Breeding guidelines



Exotic / Crosses


Age at puberty

24 months

12-15 months

24-30 months

Age at first mating

30 months

18-20 months

30-36 months

Optimum weight at first mating

250 kg

180-275 kg

300-350 kg

Oestrus cycle length

17-24 days


21 days

Duration of oestrus

12-18 hours

12-18 hours

12 -18 hours

Time of ovulation

12-16 hour after end of estrus

Optimum time of insemination

Mid heat / towards the end of heat

Gestation period

280-290 days

280 - 290 days

305-318 days

Dry period

80 -90

60 - 70

90 - 120

Calving to first heat

40 days

40 days

40 days

Calving to first service

60 days or less



Lactation length




Milk yield in litres




Birth weight

20 -25



Estrus Period  
  • Pro estrus: 2 or 3 days
  • Estrus: 12 to 18 hours
  • Ovulation: 12 to 16 hours after the end of estrus
  • Estrous cycle length: 21± 3 days

  • Puberty is the stage at which animal becomes sexually mature and secondary sex characteristics become conspicuous.
  • The term sexual maturity means that the animal is capable of reproduction.
  • Puberty is the age at which the first estrus occurs in the heifer and the bull starts giving semen with viable sperms.
  • The reproductive organs undergo marked increase in size at the time of puberty.
  • Under good feeding a calf attains puberty approximately at 66 per cent of adult body size.

Signs of estrus  
  • Cow in estrus will be the first cow to rise in the morning.
  • The cow become restless does not eat and frequently bellows and seldom ruminates.
  • Sudden drop in milk production.
  • Searching for male.
  • Traits of homosexuality is shown in which the cow will attempt to mount other cows while other females not in estrus tend to mount the estrus cow which she permits.
  • The cow is receptive to the act of mating and will stand when the bull mounts her.
  • The behaviour of standing quietly while being mounted by the bull or other cow is referred to as the ‘standing heat’ which is the surest sign of estrus.
  • This extends for 14-16 hours and shows other symptom like bellowing, nervousness, anorexia, reduction in milk yield.
  • Mucous discharge may be found sticking to the tail.
  • In early heat the discharge is watery and copious in mid heat (standing heat) it becomes thick and sticky and in late heat it will be scanty and discoloured.

  • The best indicator of oestrus is when any cow or heifer repeatedly stands and accepts mounting by one of her herd mates. Unfortunately, they do not do this on demand. Those responsible for oestrus detection must watch for this behaviour and combining what they see with their own previous knowledge/experience, to decide whether to inseminate or not.

Heat detection in buffaloes  
  • Cows do mount over other cows when they are likely to come in heat and stand for mounting when they are in good heat. This is not seen in buffaloes. Buffaloes neither mount on other buffaloes nor other buffaloes mount on buffaloes in heat.In buffaloes copious ropy hanging discharge is not seen on the contrary it gets suddenly dropped and is not noticed by the owner and the discharge is scanty.Some buffaloes do not bellow and show silent heat, especially high yielding buffaloes.
  • The main heat symptoms of buffaloes are as follows.The vulva becomes edematous, swollen. The lower portion of vulva looks oily. The gap is seen between vulvar lips and slight opening is seen. The wrinkles which are present in anoestrus buffalo become shallow or vanish.
  • The mucous membrane of vulva becomes reddish, moist and glossy.
  • Mucus discharge which is not seen normally can be seen before or after oestrus spontaneously.
  • The colour, consistency and fern pattern of mucus help in determination of correct oestrus.
  • Engorgement of teats in lactating buffaloes which is due to holding of milk following increased estrogen level in blood is seen when they are in heat.
  • Frequent urination. The urine coming in spurting action wetting the part of skin below vulva and above udder (perineum). The drying of the urine leaves white mark on skin.
  • Buffaloes in heat remain restless, off feed, raising head in a typical fashion.
  • Local non descript buffaloes bellow, become restless and remain off feed. Milk yield is reduced. The bellow is sharp and for longer duration.
  • The buffaloes expose their teeth while bellowing which is very characteristic.
  • The mucus discharge, in buffaloes is seen in about 49% cases. It is thin on the day of heat, become thick as the time passes and changes the colour from clear to white.
  • 60-70 % of the buffalo come in heat from 6 pm to 6 am (after sunset and before sunrise) and this should be borne in mind and attendant should watch the buffaloes in the evening and early morning for expression of heat symptom.
  • Teaser bull (Vasectomised bull), can be used for parading in buffalo barn for detection of heat

Other methods to detect estrus  
  • Crystallization pattern of cervical mucous will show long crystals in a typical fern-like pattern
  • There are many estrus-detecting devices available. They are usually attached to the tail or rump of the cow.
  • Mounting causes these devices to discharge a coloured fluid which can be observed afterwards even from the distance.
  • ‘Chin ball mating device’ can be used for heat detection. It works on the same principles of a ball point pen and is fixed by means of a halter below the chain of the teaser bull. When the checking animal mount the cow in heat, the dye exuded round a spring-loaded ball of the device marking the back of the cow.
  • Russian workers have developed an instrument basically consisting of an ohm meter and electrodes. When applied to the mucous membrane of the vagina, the resistance indicated on the ohm meter shows whether the cow is in heat.
  • Pedometer is an instrument used to monitor the movement of animal. The principle is the activity and movement of the cow increases on the day of heat and this can be detected by means of a pedometer tide to the leg of the cow.
  • The vaginal temperature can be recorded, which gives an indication about the heat. Generally during estrus, the vaginal temperature increased by about 1°Con the day of heat. Both methods are not very practicable.
  • The methods described above had little applicability in developing countries due to technological and economical and managemental reasons. close observation of signs of heat, standing heat remains the most practicable method of heat detection.
  • In large farm this can be supplemented with a bull-parade using a teaser bull. A teaser may be a vasectomised bull or bull in which penis has been amputated and the urethra exteriorized.
  • An intact bull can also be used by hanging a thick cloth or gunny bag curtain in front of the penis preventing entry of penis and mating.
  • Special care should be taken to prevent spread of disease by teasers. Vasectomised bull is more harmful in this regard.

Time of insemination  
  • Ovulation takes place about 12 hours after the end of estrus. It takes another six hours for it to travel half-way down the oviduct.
  • The sperm, even though reach the oviduct within minutes after insemination, must be exposed to the female reproductive tract for about 6 hours to attain the capacity to fertilize.
  • This process of preparing the sperm for fertilization is known as capacitation.
  • Sperm are viable for 24 hours in the female reproductive tract whereas the ovum remains fertile for only about 10 hours after ovulation.
  • This implies that mating or insemination between mid-estrus (middle of standing heat followed by another insemination in about 6 hours after that.
  • As a routine practice, if a cow is seen showing signs of early heat in the morning, it may be inseminated in the evening.
  • If such signs are first manifested in the evening, the cow may be bred next day morning.
  • A cow is expected to show estrus in 30-40 days after calving. Cows that fail to show heat even after 50 days have generally some problem and need examination.
  • It may be due to infection or malnutrition and remedial measures may be taken accordingly.
  • Insemination should be done only when buffalo is in standing heat. In buffalo to understand standing heat one should know the symptoms of heat.
  • Buffaloes normally are not seen standing for mounting by herd mates but standing heat can be known from the changing colour of mucus discharge which is early estrus is clear and watery but in standing heat or mid heat the colour is changed to little buffy with thick consistency.
  • In mid heat the oedema of vulva is intense there is little gap in vulvar lips and lower lip looks oily.
  • The vulvar mucus membrane is glossy reddish or pink and wet.
Signs of approaching parturition  
  • Cow will leave the herd and seek isolation.
  • Loss of appetite and distress.
  • Distention of teat and udder, considerable milk appears in the udder and there may be dripping of milk.
  • Relaxation of pelvic ligament one day before calving, the ligament on the sides of the tail head is loosened so that hollows appear on either side of the backbone and the tail head is raised and the quarters are dropped.
  • The vulva become enlarged and flabby
  • Animal will be restless and will pace about often trying to kick or scratch the flank region.
  • The parturition process has three stages a. preparatory stage (uterine contraction and dilatation of cervix) b. active expulsive stage c. expulsion of foetal membrane.
  • Cow will deliver the calf within 12 hours after commencement of first stage and lapse in this vaginal examination of assistance by a veterinarian is required.
  • Care must be taken to observe expulsion of placenta (after birth). It should be removed immediately so as to avoid cow eating it.

Package of practice to improve reproductive efficiency  
  • Accurate record kept is very important in ensuring reproductive efficiency I the herd.
  • There production detail like date of estrus, date of service and calving should be maintained properly.
  • This data should be used to predict the probable date of heat, such animal should be watched carefully in the morning and evening for signs of heat.
  • In larger dairy farm teaser bulls can be put in use.
  • Complete breeding history, past performance and difficulties of a individual cow should be maintained.
  • Irregular estrus and abnormal discharge should be attended immediately.
  • The cows with retained placenta should be treated promptly and when such cows are put in breeding next time, the reproductive tract should be examined thoroughly for involution and possibility of infection.
  • A manager should examine a cow 24 to 36 hours after service for metestrus bleeding. If it occurs under 24 hours after service, the cows were bred too late.
  • If it occurs over 36 hours after service, they were bred too early during estrus. This will help in pinpointing of failure of conception.
  • Cow should be examined for pregnancy 45 to 60 days after service so that if they are non-pregnant, steps can be taken to re-breed them at the earliest opportunity.
  • If the conception rate under A.I is lower than natural service, time of insemination, insemination technique and quality of semen must be checked.
  • Short irregular cycles indicate cystic ovaries, short and long irregular interval point to missed head.
  • Silent or quiescent heat : the behavioural manifestation of heat may be very weak or imperceptible in such case. It is very common in buffaloes. But there is a normal ovulation and if inseminated at proper time the animal can conceive.
  • Cows go through the normal ovarian changes of the estrus cycle except the behavioral heat and sexual receptivity.
  • It is more in summer season than other seasons and more in heifer than adult animals.
  • Use of balanced feed, proper summer management, use of teaser bulls can be of use tool in detecting silent heat.
  • Anestrus or absence of sexual cycle may be due to under developed genitalia or due to persistent CL. In the former case follicle fail to develop and a heifer will not come to heat at all.
  • One of the major causes of under developed genitalia is malnutrition. Besides there can be genetic causes.
  • The second probability is the anestrous also may be due to persistent CL, due to certain hormonal disturbances, the C L persist beyond the life expectancy in a normal cycle, thereby preventing further cycling. A common cause for persistent CL is endometritis of the uterus.
  • Sometime anestrus is often observed in the early post partum period when the lactation is strong, probably due to the influence of lactation(due to secretion of prolactin) 'e'lactational anoustnum

Care and management of young stock  
  • Normally newborn animals will be taken care by its mother and required little assistance.
  • In case of cattle, sheep and goat immediately after birth the mucus around the nostrils should be whipped out using dry cloth or a hand full of straw can be used for this purpose.
  • Calm environment should be provided to the mother and young animals for development of bond.
  • The mother should be allowed to lick the newborn; if the dam fails to lick it can be stimulated by sprinkling small quantity of salt or bran over the young one.
  • Immediately after birth the naval cord should be ligated with clean sterile cotton thread 1 inch from the body and tincture iodine should be applied to the naval cord.
  • With in 1 hour after birth the newborn will able to stand and it should be allowed to drink adequate quantity of colostrum (first milk) which will give immunity to the newborn.
  • Young animals should be housed comfortably. Adequate care should be taken to avoid housing young stock with adult stocks.
  • In winter condition adequate warmth condition should be provided.
  • Adequate bedding materials like straw or hay should be provided to newborn animals.
  • For giving extra heat artificial light source can be utilized.
  • Proper light, ventilation and hygiene should be maintained to avoid spread of disease.

Care and management of dry animals  
  • A dry animal means animal, which completes their lactation and drying is essential to give adequate rest to the udder of the animal.
  • Dry animals should be separated from other milch animals.
  • In case of cow, dry cow can be treated for mastitis to prevent mastitis in next lactation.

Care and management of pregnant animals  
  • Pregnant animals should be provided with extra ration to meet the requirement of fast growing foetus as well as store energy for future lactation.
  • Pregnant animals should be separated in advanced stage from other non pregnant animals.
  • They should be housed separately in place called calving pen.
  • Adequate bedding materials should be provided in the pregnant animals shed.
  • Floor of the pregnant animal shed should be non-slippery.
  • Adequate clean fresh drinking water should also be provided in the calving pen.
  • In advance stage of pregnancy laxative diet should be provided.

Care and management of bullock  
  • Bullocks are normally used for agricultural operations and or transport purpose.
  • Some bullocks are ferocious and so control them properly with nose rope or nose rings.
  • The hooves of the bullocks should be provided with metal shoes to protect the hooves from wear and tear.
  • The working hours for bullocks are recommended as follows :
    • Normal Work - 6 hours of carting or 4 hours of ploughing.
    • Heavy Work - 8 hours of carting or 6 hours of ploughing.
  • Sufficient roughages and 1-2 kgs of concentrates may be provided for feeding of bullocks during break period in works, the animal may be left for free grazing.
  • The bullocks are housed in separate sheds with sufficient space and protection from hot and cool conditions.
  • Free access to drinking water is essential. Regular grooming of animals should be practiced.

Management of Bulls  
  • The bull is half of the herd. Not only the bulls should be genetically superior quality, but they also have to be in prime breeding condition by proper feeding and management.
  • Bulls should be selected based on their pedigree and the bull calves should be separated from breedable cows and heifer by the time of attainment of puberty, which is between 1 ½ to 2 ½ years in zebu and buffalo breeds and still lower in crossbreds.
  • The bull calf should be dehorned within a few days of birth by disbudding with chemical or hot iron.
  • This practice is considered to make the bull less dangerous.
Restraining of bulls  
  • The bull should be ringed by the time of about one year of age, by which time he begins to show his strength.
  • A smaller ring can be put at this age, and can be replaced with bigger one when he matures.
  • Nose rings are made in two semi-circular pieces hinged together and are of aluminum, copper or some alloy which does not rust.
  • The free end of the two parts either, dovetails into one another or are in a form of point and socket, secured either by a flush spring or by a screw with counter sunk head, so that the joint is smooth.
  • Since the nose is extremely sensitive to touch, ring in the nose enables the attendant to keep the neck extended and the head raised while restringing or parading.
  • Nose ring is an essential item in control of bulls. Bull leading poles can be conveniently hitched to the nose ring and this is mostly felt necessary also.
  • The bull can be effectively controlled by means of a chain or rope around the horns threaded through the nose ring.

Training of bulls  
  • The young bulls should be trained for handling and leading.
  • It is much easier to maintain control on a mature bull if he was properly trained when young.
  • Even when the bull is 4-6 months of old a simple halter may be put over his face and he be accustomed to handling.
  • After the nose ring is put he should be led either by chain or pole.
  • While leading, the attendant should never walk in front of the bull, but must lead from the side holding the nose always higher than natural level.
  • If the nose is allowed to drop, the bull may get inclination to butt.
  • While handling and leading, all bulls should be considered as potentially dangerous and no complacency should be shown at any time even in case of old as well acquainted bulls.

Exercise for bulls  
  • Growing as well as mature bulls should be regularly be exercised. So that they do not put on fat and thus remain in thrifty condition.
  • These will also helping keeping their toes well worn. Over grown toes may hinder walking as well as mounting behavior of bulls.

Care of mature bulls  
  • Breeding bulls should never be allowed to run with the herd. They should be housed in separate paddock, individually.
  • This helps in controlling number of services by the bulls for recording breeding data.
  • The hair around the prepuce should be trimmed periodically.
  • The hair should not be clipped too close which may cause irritation and itching to the prepuce. About 1 cm length may be ideal.

Maintenance of sexual libido of bulls  
  • There are several factors which can reduce libido in bulls like young or old age, inexperience, tiring exercise, or too frequent usage, semen collection at unusual places in un favourable conditions and using unsuitable fittings, faulty feeding, obesity or run down condition, inherent defects, temporary injury or chronic defect of legs, back and penis. All such problems should be rectified as soon as noticed.
  • Some bulls are sensitive to artificial vagina whereas others seem able to withstand considerable rough handling.
  • The well known reflexes of mounting the cow, projecting the penis, thrusting and ejaculation can easily be retarded or even inhibited in a bull by unnatural method of handling.
  • Majority of the bulls serve well in familiar surrounding and are handled by the same attendant provided these are associated with previous satisfactory experience.
  • The sexual reflexes can be inhibited by painful, uncomfortable or even distractive situation.
  • In a sensitive bull, inhibition may develop quickly, even when collections are taken carefully.
  • The animal should be give rest from collection for as long as possible when inhibition starts developing. This can be overcome by changing the surrounding.
  • Overwork is common in young bulls allowed free access to cows and heifers.
  • The number of services and not the number of cows served is the important consideration. No bull should be allowed to serve each cow more than twice in a heat period.
  • A young bull may be placed with 2 or 3 cow per week and it can be put into service after 2-2 ½ years of age.
  • A mature bull may ejaculate many times per week without effect on libido or semen quality.
  • The bull with reduced libido should be teased by delaying the service. Bulls become bored in their surrounding, particularly if in small paddock and may lose interest.
  • Presence of another bull or change in the surrounding will overcome this problem.
  • Summer stress leads to low sexual libido and poor semen quality, especially in purebred exotic and crossbred bulls.
  • To overcome such problems during summer, bulls should be housed in cool, well ventilated dry sheds.
  • Showering or splashing cold water on bull 2 or 3 times during hot part of the day and protection against direct and reflected radiation were found to be very useful.

Feeding of mature bulls  
  • A good rule to feed mature bull is to feed daily about 1 kg hay and ½ kg concentrate per 100 kg body weight.
  • Thus a 400 kg bull should get 4 kg hay and 2 kg concentrate.
  • These amounts should be adjusted according to the body condition of various bulls because there is individual variation in response.
  • Excess fatness in mature bull should be avoided at all costs as it reduces libido and may cause severe stress and strain on their feet and legs.
  • Excess calcium in bull ration can cause problem particularly in older bulls.
  • When legume roughage is fed the concentrate mixture should not contain a calcium supplement.
  • Generally bulls do not lose calcium and in time excess calcium may cause vertebra and other bones to fuse together.
  • Therefore bulls may need a different concentrate mixture than the milch cows.