Horticulture :: Landscaping :: Plant components




Annuals are plants that complete their life cycle in one season or one year (eg.) Balsam and Cosmos. Annuals are a group of plants which attain their full growth from seed, flower and die in one year or one season. Mostly they complete their life history in 3 to 6 months. They comprise of several of the most beautiful and easily grown plants widely varying in form, habit of growth and colour.
Annuals are classified into rainy season annuals, cool season or winter annuals and warm weather annuals.

Annuals can be used for multipurpose as hereunder.
1. Flower beds of simple design can be laid out on the outskirts of lawn, along the base of buildings, in the path leading to entrance of horses and on sides of foot steps
2. Certain annuals are useful as edging (e.g. Dwarf marigold, Alyssum and Candytuft)
3. Certain annuals are useful in hanging baskets (eg. Petunia, Verbena and Alyssum)
4. Certain climbing annuals are useful to cover trellis work (e.g. Tall Nasturtium and Cobaea scandens)
5. Some annuals are useful for massing in beds (e.g., Aster, Phlox, Salvia, Zinnia and Verbena)
6. Few other annuals are useful for planting in shrubberies in vacant spaces; they are Sunflower, Hollyhock, tall growing species of Amaranthus, Tithonia etc.
7. They serve as perennial sources of supply of cutflowers for indoor decorations.

Hints for raising annuals
1. The seeds are sown in seed pan or raised beds. Thin sowing is necessary to get good sized vigorous seedlings. In the seed pan, a pot mixture consisting of two parts of well sifted soil, two parts of leaf mould and one part of sand may used.
2. Fine seeds may be mixed with 3 to 4 parts of sand before sowing.
3. Annuals which do not stand transplanting like Calendula and Antirrhinum are sown broadcast in beds.
4. Watering the nursery may be done with rosecan.
5. After the seeds germinate completely, over crowded seedlings are thinned out.
6. As transplanting often results in heavy casualities the seedlings are pricked before transplanting. Pricking is the practice of transplanting young seedlings into small pots individually or in the nursery beds with richer soil giving wider space (10 to 13 cm). Pricking is normally done when the seedlings have produced 2 to 4 leaves. This help to increase the fibrous root system and to develop vigorous plants.
7. One month after planting when the seedlings have produced six to eight leaves, they can be transplanted into main beds.
8. Generally a spacing of 30 X 30 cm may be given for most of the annuals.
9. Tall growing annuals like Hollyhock may be provided with stakes.
10. The terminal buds of seedlings are pinched-off after they establish and when they are about 25 to 30 cm high. This encourages lateral  growth and a more bushy shape.

Biennials are plants which grow in one season, flower, fruit and die in the next season. Generally, the period of growth is 6 to 9 months. Biennials are grown in the same way as annual and can be used similarly. Examples of biennials are canterburry bulb, Gladiolus etc.

Herbaceous perennials
Herbaceous perennials are those perennial plants with soft succulent stems (as compared to shrubs which have woody stems). They are propagated by seeds, cuttings, offset and slips. They are useful as her­baceous or mixed borders or for pot culture. The following .are the examples for herbaceous perennials.

  1. Chrysanthemum: Flowers are single or double available in attractive colours. Perennial species include C. frutescens and C. maximum and its varieties. Propagated easily by suckers.
  2. Solidago:Popularly known as 'golden rods' producing erect feathery rod-like trusses crowded with pretty golden yellow flowers. They are suitable for mass planting in beds and borders in and adjoining lawn. They are raised by suckers.
  3. Gerbera: Stemless perennial herbs with radical stalked leaves, flower heads are solitary, large and sterile with varying colours. Propagation by division of clumps or from seed.
  4. Gazania splendens:Perennial plant about 20 cm high, with pointed leaves with silver, and bearing beautiful daisy like flowers, in yellow orange shades; useful in beds, borders for edging and carpet bedding and on rockeries, propagated by seed or suckers.
  5. Perstemon:  It has a large erect spikes of tubular, open-mouthed, gloxinia - like flowers, which are available in several shades of colours, a good bedding plant, propagated by seeds, cuttings or division.
  6. Pelargoniums: It is commonly known as geraniums, a popular herbaceous perennial pot plants grown for the beauty of their flowers which are borne in large trusses propagated by cuttings or from seed.
Name of Plant & Family Colour of flowers Method of propagation Remarks
(Floss Flowers) (Compositae)
White Blue By Seeds Floss Flowers – Full blooming useful for edging, massing in beds and for mixed border – Ageratum means “ever young”
Althaea rosea (Hollyhock)
Various colours By Seeds & Transplanting Large single or double flowers – Useful for screens, borders and for background suited to hills
Amaranthus (Amaranthaceae) Various colours By Seeds & Transplanting Foliage or blooms are different coloured
Foliage types: A. tricolor, A. salicifoliu,
A. melancholiusruber
Various colours By Seeds & Transplanting Bedding or pot or border plant.  Pink, rose, apricot, orange, crimson, white yellow flowers.
Aster (Compositae) Rose like and variegated By Seeds & Transplanting Can be grown throughout the year. Suited for borders also.
Balsam (Balsaminaceae) (Impatiens balsamina) Rose like and variegated By Seeds & Transplanting Can be grown throughout the year. Suited for borders also.
Culliopsis spp. (Coreopsis) (Compositae) Yellow brown or Crimson brown By Seeds & Transplanting Flowers profusely single or double yellow; orange and crimson flower – Excellent as borders and in flower beds.
Celosia spp.
(Cock’s Comb)
Fascinated flowers of varying colours By seeds Pretty annuals with terminal fascinated flowers or varying colours. Useful for borders and mixed borders.
Chrysanthemum spp. (Compositae) Yellow white Seeds and suckers Hardy annual or perennial single or double flowers, white and yellow, scent – Spacing 1 ft. – 2 ft. Well drained loamy soil is best.  Flowers are used for Puja, garlands and head dress, useful for mixed border for bedding and pot culture. 
Cosmos spp.
(Cosmos bipinnatus)
White, crimson, rose & purple Seeds Popular rainy season annual with graceful foliage. It can be grown throughout the year.
Dianthus spp.  
(Pinks and Carnations)
i) Indian Pink or Chinese Pink
ii) Sweet William
(D. barbatus)
Various colours Seeds Popular rainy season annual with graceful foliage. It can be grown throughout the year. Useful for pots and borders also.
iii) Carnation Pink
(D. caryophyllus)
Pink, white, crimson & others Seeds and cuttings Suited for pots particularly,
Carnation – Margurite is the most successful in plains
Gaillardia spp.
Blanket Flower
G.pulchella var. picta var. loranziana
Red yellow Seeds Single or double flowered heads. 
Gomphrena globosa  (Globe Amaranthus or Bachelor’s Button; Amaranthaceae) Pink, Purple & Orange Seeds Suitable for beds, borders and as cut flowers. Thrives well in all garden soil.
Gerbera (Compositae) Various colours By divisions or suckers Suited for beds and borders.
Helianthus sp.
Yellow with brown (dark) colour Seeds & Cuttings Staking the plants is essential in the case of tall and unbranched varieties.
Helichrysum (Compositae) Various colours Seeds Suited for pots and borders – Everlasting flower.
Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) Minute Brownish Pink Seeds Suited for pots and as ornamental leaves.  Green in open sunny situations.
Lathyrus odoratus
Sweet Pea)
Sweet fine colour Seeds Grown in open sunny situations.  Suited for hills
Tagetes erecta
Bright yellow, orange Seeds Suited for beds and borders
Michaelmas daisy (Aster lamellus) (Perennial Aster) (Compositae) White, rose, blue Clumps and suckers Low growing plants – Best during cold and rainy seasons.
Pansy (Violaceae) Violet, blue, yellow, white Seeds Suited for borders and pots – Pretty brilliant coloured flowers.
Petunia sp. (Solanaceae) Various colours Seeds Suited to flower beds, mixed borders, pot plants, window borders and hanging baskets.
Phlox (Polemoniaceae) Various colours Seeds Suited for beds, pots
Pimpinella monoica (Lady’s Lace) Small lacy white flowers Seeds Coriander like smell of leaves – Small lacy white flowers – Suited for medium high elevations.
Poppy (Papaveraceae) Various colours Seeds There are four species useful for cut flowers – Suitable for high attitudes.
(Portulaca grandifiora) (Portulacceae)
Various colours Seeds Trailing stem with short thick leaves – Resembles roses – Suited as an edge plant.
Salvia splendens (Labiatae) Scarlet blue Purple pink Seeds Can be grown throughout the year – Suited for beds and borders – Pinching back the shoots in early stages builds up better plants
Schizanthus (Solanaceae)
(Poor Man’s Orchid)
(Butterfly flowers)
Various colours Seeds Cold season annual, pretty foliage of green colour, orchid like flowers of various colours.
Solidago (Golden Rod) (Compositae) Golden yellow flowers Seeds Herbaceous perennials, erect feathery, rod like, trusses, crowded with pretty golden yellow flowers suitable for mass planting in beds and borders
Tagetes sp. (Marigold) (Compositae) Yellow orange variegated Seeds Tall and erect growing annuals, single or double flowers, effective in beds and mixed borders.  Flowers are grown on commercial scale also.
Tithonia speciosa (Mexican sunflower; Compositae) Reddish orange flowers Seeds Reddish orange flowers on long inflated stalks, can be grown throughout the year, valuable for planting in long borders and in shrubberies. 
Verbena (Verbenaceae)
V. Hybrida Vvenosa
V. erinoides
White, Purple & Pink Suckers, cuttings layers Garden verbenas are trailing plants, annuals and perennials useful in shrubberies, hanging baskets, rockeries, flower beds and in pot culture. 
Vinca (Apocynaceae)
V. rosea
Pure white red Suckers, cuttings layers Attractive foliage, smooth green leaves, Tamil “Sudukadu Mallikai”.  The plants should be cut back every month.  Useful for flower beds, plants, borders, rockeries, etc.
Zinnia elegans (Youth and old age; Compositae) Various colours Seeds Hardy, flowers in profusion for a long period, single or double flowers borne on long stalks.  Attractive in borders and beds.  The first flower bud should be nipped off for allowing the plants to grow bushy and bear numerous flowers.
Z. linearis Golden orange Seeds Hardy flowering perennial – Linear leaves- Beautiful small golden orange flowers – Useful for low bed, edging, hanging baskets and rockeries.



Shrubs are plants with woody stems which are smaller than trees but bigger than herbaceous plants. A typical shrub will have several stems arising from the main stem at ground level itself. They can be either evergreen or deciduous. Some are at­tractive in their foliage, some produce attractive flowers and some are grown for their attractive berries. A stretch of shrubs are established as borders on the sides of walks and paths. Shrubs are planted at the corners of lawn in a curving line. A shrub­bery is an area planted with different kinds of shrubs and a shrub border is one where only one kind of shrub is used.  Shrubs that stand frequent pruning and trimming can be used for topiary work. Tall growing shrubs can be used to screen the disagreeable object and backyard.  Handsome shrubs can make attractive pot plants for indoor and outdoor decoration.

Shrubs can prevent architectural features like glass doors and windows from conducting heat thereby keeping the overall temperature of the interiors down. On an average a landscaped house can save at least 40% on energy bills as compared to a house that lacks this feature.

Importance of shrubs in garden
1. Being permanent, they form part of the frame work of the garden.
2. They form the chief features of landscape gardenings placed in front of tall trees and joining the spacious lawn etc.
3. Shrubs which are amenable for frequent training are chosen for topiary work
4. Tall growing shrubs often serve as screen
5. They are useful as a single specimen in the lawn
6. They can be trained to form standards i.e., trained to single stem and allowed to branch out and form a handsome head only above a particular height e.g. Bougainvillea, Ixora, Murrya exotica.

For several reasons a garden should be enclosed by a good hedge or fence. It provides protection from cattle, shelter from wind and privacy. The best plant material for forming such a hedge would be a quick growing hardy shrub with attractive foliage and or handsome flowers, drought resistant and should stand trimming to shape and capable of being quickly and easily raised from seed or from cuttings to fill up the gaps promptly.
Decorative internal hedges are formed of small-growing shrubs or under shrubs which have handsome foliage and bear in some cases handsome flowers as well. The usual height for an ornamental internal hedge varies from 30 to 65 cm. Its objective is to seemingly divide the garden into a number of parts, each part containing the distinctive feature of it sown as a rosary or flower bed or collections of bulbs etc. As the boundary or the screen or the ornamental hedges are meant to be permanent features of a garden, proper care should be exercised in planting them. Trenches of 30 to 40cm wide and 40 to 45 cm deep should be dug and refilled with top soil, farmyard manure and red earth. Hedges are planted either with the seed or cuttings in the rainy season. Shoots should be tipped as they grow to induce them to branch out and side shoots should be cut back to the desired dimensions. A compact and a thick hedge is possible if its is trimmed as often as necessary, cutting back the overgrowing shoots strictly to the desired dimensions.

Plants suitable for ornamental internal hedges
1. Acalypha sp.
2. Barleria sp.
3. Bougainvillea sp.
4. Cupressus macrocarpa
5. Duranta plumieri
6.  Eranthemum sp.
7. Hamelia patens
8. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
9. Lantana camera
10. Malpighia coccigera
11. Meyenia erecta
12. Pedilanthus tithymaloides

Plants suitable for boundary or tall hedges
1. Acacia farnesiana
2. Acalypha
3. Agave americana
4. Aralia
5. Bougainvillea
6. Caesalpinia pulcherrima
7. Casuarina equisetifolia
8. Carissa carandas
9. Pithecelobium dulce
10. Punica granatum
11. Tecoma stans
12. Thevetia nereifolia

Edges are plants which are employed in gardens for dividing beds, borders, roads, walks or path of demarcating spaces allotted for particular purpose, as flower beds. Mechanical edging made of bricks or rough or irregular stones embedded in the ground are also often used in gardens.
Edging plants are of dwarf growing in habit with handsome foliage and are amenable for regular trimming. The edging plants should be perennial, hardy, easily propagated and should have lasting foliage or flower or both. The height of an edge should be about 15 to 20 cm. Constant trimming is necessary to maintain proper shape and height.

Foliage plants suitable for edging
1. Alternanthera
2. Coleus sp.
3. Eupatorium cannabinus
4. Iresine sp.
5. Santolina chamaecyparissus
6. Echeveria
7. Cineraria maritime

Flowering plants suitable for edging:
1. Alyssum
2. Amaryllis
3. Gerbera
4. Lobelia
5. Gazania splendens
6. Plumbago capensis
7. Zephyranthes

Shrubs are defined as woody or semi woody perennial plants, the branches of which arise from the base of the plant and grow up to a height ranging from 50 cm to 4 m. Shrubs are used for back ground, boundary wall, screen, shade, wind breaks and foundation planting. Hence, knowledge on the form, growth habit and habitat is essential to select the shrubs for planting.


Botanical Name Family Common Name Flower colour Remarks
Acalypha Euphorbiaceae Acalypa -
Hedge-Screens. Best in full sun
Acalypha godesesffiana Euphorbiaceae - -
Bright green leaves edged with creamy white
Acalypa hispida Euphorbiaceae Cats tail Flowers bright red in drooping spike
Green leaves hairy on top-slightly pale beneath
Acalypa wikesiana Euphorbiaceae Cats tail -
Leaves are blotched - mottled with different shades of red - crimson and brown  
Allamanda nerifolia Apocynaceae - Large showing rich yellow
Evergreen shrub or half climber (Cutting / layer)
Ardisia ummellata Myrisinaceae Spear flower Publish flowers
Seed / sucker
Aralia elegantissima Araliaceae - Various colours
Cuttings and suckers
Barleria cristata Acanthaceae December poovu (T) Purplish blue
Cuttings / seeds
Bauhinia acuminata Leguminasae - Snow white
Hardy plant - seeds
Bauhinia tomentosa Leguminasae - Sulphur yellow
All types of soil - seeds
Brunfelsia Americana Solanaceae - White fading to yellow
Perpetual flowering shrub - air layering
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Leguminosae - Orange scarlet
Bushy with few prickles
Calliandra haematocephala Leguminosae - Orange scarlet
Bushy with few pricklesTall bushy shrub- air layers
Cassia glauca Leguminosae - Yellow flowers
Seed, dark green foliage
Cassia laevigata Leguminosae - -
Full sun partial shade -seeds
Cestrum diurnum Solanaceae The days jasmine White (Day time)
Quick growing - evergreen bush - seed or cutting
Cestrum nocturnum Solanaceae Lady of the night White (Night)
Screening and trellis - cuttings
Clerodendron inerme Verbenaceae Forest jasmine White flowers
Compact - clean hedge- cuttings
Crossandra undalaefolia Acanthaceae - Orange flowers
Free flowering - shrub cutting and layering
Dombeya angulata Sterculiaceae - White flowers
Flowers does not fall even after fading out till blown by the wind - air layering
Durantha plumieri Verbenaceae Golden dew drop Blue flower
Yellow fruits - full sun and partial shade - seed or cuttings
Eranthemum bicolor Euphorbiaceae - Dark red
Shady or semi shady places - colourful foliage - cuttings
Hamelia patens Rubiaceae - Orange scarlet
Handsome - perpetual flowering shrub - full sun - air layering
Hibiscus rosasinensis Malvaceae - Mostly red in colour
White, yellow, orange, pink, etc.
Hibiscus schizopetalous Malvaceae - -
Leaves toothed - flowers pendulous, orange, red petals recurved
Hibiscus mutabilis Malvaceae - White double flowers change to pink
Leave cordate - 5 angled and toothed, hairy - flowers large - hardy species
Hibiscus syriacus Malvaceae - Flowers single or double
Much branched - leaves strongly 3 ribbed - many rounded teeth
Ixora Rubiaceae - -
Shrubbery and specimen plants
Ixora coccinea Rubiaceae - Yellow, orange, pink, scarlet white
Cutting and air layering
Ixora chinensis Rubiaceae - -
Slow growing - cutting / seed
Jasmine Rubiaceae Jasmine Creamy white
Jatropha panduraefolia Euphorbiaceae - Red flowering
Quick flowering - semi shade-  cutting / air layering
Lantana camera Verbenaceae - Yellow, white, etc.
Fruits black round
Lawsonia inerme Lythraceae - Yellow or rose
Usually as hedge - seeds and cutting
Murraya exotica Rubiaceae Chinese box -
Specimen plant - seeds and air layering
Mussaenda erthrophylla Rubiaceae Mussanda Scarlet velvet and leafy sepal
Layering - partial shade
Neerium oleander Apocynaceae - Flowers fragrant and shady
Nyctanthes arbortristis Oleaceae Night jasmine Sweet scented
Flower open at night and start falling in the day-seed
Pentas Rubiaceae - White
Semi shade - cutting. Also grown as pot plant
Ponsettia pulcherrima Euphorbiaceae Poinsettia Bracts crimson
Russelia junceae Scrophulariaceae - -
Flowers produced at the tip of whorled branches. Rockery. Shrubbery cuttings
Tabernaemontana coronaria Apocynaceae Cape jasmine White single or double
Foliage variegated -cuttings and air layering
Tecoma stans - - Yellow Quick growing - such and semi shade



Trees form the main framework of the garden. Some  trees produce attractive and beautiful flowers including fragrant flowers, few trees are noted for their attractive foliage and few more trees are  known  for their peculiar shape or form which  are  used  as specimen trees. Shady trees are planted in chosen spots of large public garden which provides place for picnic and relaxation. Such trees are also planted along the borders of roads as avenue for giving shade. In selecting ornamental trees, the pur­pose should be decided first and then the place of its culture should be finalized.

Tree is a perennial plant having distinct trunk crown at the top. Trees have immense beauty from aesthetic view point. They bring the change in sky line on account of variation in their height, shapes, foliage texture and flower color. They are used in landscape plan for aesthetic and functional purposes. Trees are used in garden as specimen, avenue plantation, wind breaks and screening.

Landscaping the backyard with trees and other plants can help to minimize the bad effects of pollution. In addition to purifying the air, plants can help disperse fog, reduce wind speeds, reduce noise effects, control erosion and influence snow deposition.

A judicious planting of trees enhances the beauty of surroundings. Deciduous trees used in landscaping help in cooling down your property in summer. They also help in warming it up during winter months by allowing the sun to shine through.As the trees are the frame work of the garden they should be easy growing, hardy and requiring little attention.
Woody plants like trees are the backbone of a landscape. Trees provide skyline to the landscape, background for highlighting architecture, screening of less pleasing sights, as roadside avenues, as screens for privacy from roads and flats opposite. One of the places wherein trees can be extensively planted is on the roadside which is known as avenue planting. This has two aspects namely beauty and utility and both these aspects can be combined by careful planning and judicious selection of the right tree species.

Roadside plantations help in noise abatement. To reduce the noise generated by high speed traffic on national highways to tolerable limits, about 20 to 30m wide belts of trees and shrubs may be necessary. To reduce the noise generated by moderate speed traffic in the cities, 7 to 15m wide belts of trees and shrubs may be required. Evergreen trees are better for noise abatement than deciduous trees which do not afford a barrier to sound when leafless. Recently, planting in strips along railway lines are also becoming popular. The main objectives are stabilization of railway track and protection of railway track against erosion and checking of the shifting sand in desert areas getting on to the railway track. From the point of view of the safety of the railway traffic, the first row of trees should not be planted very close to the railway track. The first row of trees is accordingly recommended to be planted at a distance of about 7.5m from the centre of the track.


Botanical Name Family Common Name Flower colour Remarks
Acacia auriculiformis Leguminosae Golden shower Yellow Bark light grey-Road side, Parks and large private gardens
Albizzia lebbek Leguminosae Vagai Greenish white Attractive foliage - Long pods of 16-20 cm.
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae Indian liac, Margosa tree - -
Bauhinia purpurea Leguminosae Mountain ebony, Geranium tree, Mandarai Rose and purple tones Hardy tree
Bauhinia variegate Leguminosae Segapu mandarai Various shades of pink and purple Flower appear when the tree is leafless
Bignonia megapatomica Bignoniaceae Trumpet flower Mauve flowers Quick growing
Bixa orellana Bixaceae Annatto tree -
Petals white and pale pink Dye is prepared from orange red pulp that covers the seeds
Bombax malabaricum Bombacaecae Red slik cotton Bright red Tall quick growing flowers fleshy and edible
Butea monosperma Leguminosae Flame of the forest, Sendurapoo Orange red flower Flowers used as dyes-Gum is used for tanning
Caesalpinia coriari Leguminosae Divi-Divi Greenish flowers Slow growing
Callistemon lanceolatus Myrtaceae Bottle brush Scarlet red Flower bearing branches resemble bottle brush in shape.
Calophyllum indophyllum Guttiferae Alexandrian laurel, Punnai Fragrant white Medium sized - seed and suckers
Casia fistula Leguminosae Golden shower Indian laburnum, Sarakonnai Yellow Medium sized - seed and suckers
Cassia marginata Leguminosae Red cassia Terracotta Small tree with short trunk and drooping branches
Cassia nodosa Leguminosae Pink cassiaq Bright pink, fading white. Deciduous tree
Casuarina siamea Leguminosae - Bright yellow Road side and Avenue tree -park
Casuarina equiseti folia Casurinaceae Australian oak, Savukku - Avenue, hardy, quick growth seashore and arid regions
Cordia sebestina Borginaceae The scarlet cordia Scarlet red Dwarf evergreen
Delonix regia Leguminosae Gulmohar, Flame tree, Peacock flowers Scarlet, mild scent Large deciduous
Enterolobium saman Leguminosae Rain tree - Rosy stamens projecting far beyond the rest of the flower
Erythrina indica Leguminosae Coral tree Kalyana murungai Large red Tal deciduous tree, commonly used as shade tree- hedges (because of spines)
Eucalyptus citriodora Myrtaceae Eucalyptus White Tree of elegant appearance
Ficus bengalensis Moraceae Alamaram - Large
Ficus elastica Moraceae Rubber tree - Large tree-vegetatively propagated- small plants are used as houseplants
Gliricidia maculata Leguminosae Gliricidia Small white Quick growing - shade tree plantations
Grevilleae robusta Proteaceae Silver oak Small reddish orange -
Jacaranda filicifolia Bignoniaceae Fern leafed jacaranda Purplish blue Humid regions
Jacaranda ovalifolia Bignoniaceae Minusa leaved jacadanda Purplish blue Medium sized
Lagerstroemia speciosa var. rosea Lythraceae Pride of India Rose coloured flowers Terminal panicle
Lagerstroemia thorelli Lythraceae - Lilac on purple Large auxillary panicle
Melaleuca leucadendron Myrtaceae White bottle brush - -
Michelia champaca Magnoliaceae Champac Yellow scented Medium sized
Millingtonia heortensis Bignoniaceae Indian oak tree Maramalli White and fragrant flowers open in the evening Tall evergreen-Bark is irregularly ridged and fissured.  Very rough and corky.  beautiful scented flowers.
Peltophorum inerme Leguminosae Rusty shield bearer Yellow Road side planting
Plumeria Apocynaceae Pagoda tree Large flowers, white or various shades of pink, yellow and red Large medium sized deciduous tree
Plumeria alba Apocynaceae Pagoda tree White scented. Rose, Pink and Red -
Plumeria rubra Apocynaceae - - -
Parkia biglandulosa Mimosaseae Badminton ball tree White Seed
Polyalthia longifolia Annonaceae Mast tree - The branches and leaves droop steeply downward
Pongamia glabra Leguminosae Pungam Lilac coloured or pale pink Moderate sized tree-shining dark green leaves
Saraca india Leguminosae Asoka tree Yellow or orange Medium sized-considered as shade tree-Lord Buddha was born under its shade
Spathodea campanulata Bignoniaceae Tulip tree Large colourful Drier soil and climate
Tabebuia rosea Bignoniaceae - Rose purple flower on leaf less clusters Wood is not hard - Soft wind often breaks the branches - quick growing
Terminalia arjuna Combretaceae Neer marudhu - Commonly planted as road side



Botanically, plants which have the special structure to climb on supports are defined as climbers. Climbers are very important ornamental plants and are com­monly used on walls, arches and pergolas but in cities their utility is increased for the purpose of screening the premises from adjacent houses and maintaining privacy.  Bare walls can be most effectively decorated by growing colorful climbers.

Climbers are defined as a plant which possesses special structures to climb over a support.  These special structures may be hook-hike thorns. Creepers are those plants which are unable to climb vertically on their own because of their weak stems. Climbers and Creepers are important group of plants which add beauty, color in striking way of fragrance in gardens and artificial structures like wall, arches, pergola, pillars; Cascades, Topiary, etc. are well decorated with the help of climbers. They attach themselves to supports by their rootlets, hooks, tendrils or by the stem and leaves. Trees are also used to train the climbers and this enhances the beauty of garden many folds.

Most climbers are perennials but there are a few annuals which can be grown in pots or in hanging baskets or in low trellises e.g. Ipomoea, Thunbergia and Clitoria. Climbers are propagated by layers and cuttings. Proper training is essential for climbers to be at their best. Climbers which are to be trained over screens and trellises should be induced from the base of the plant to cover them completely. This is achieved by pinching off the terminal bud to induce lateral branching when they are about 30-40 cm high. In the case of climbers over arches, pergolas and trees one or two leader shoots may be trained to the top to branch out.

Uses of climbers in garden
1. Certain climbers are grown in gardens for their attractive foliage. e. g. Asparagus spregeri, Ficus repens, Hedera helix, Scindapsus aureus.
2. Some light climbers can be trained as ‘screens’ in gardens. e. g. Bignonia venusta, Jacquemontia violaceae, Passiflora edulis.
3. Climbers like Allamanda, Antigonon, Aristolochia elegans, Solanum seaforthianum can be used on arches, bowers and pergolas.
4. Heavy climbers like Bougainvillea, Scindapsus, Petrea volubilis can be trained over strong pergolas or on trees which look very attractive.


Adenocalymma allicea Bignoniaceae Light mauve Evergreen heavy climber
Adenocalymma cathartica Bignoniaceae Yellow Evergreen heavy climber
Allamanda cathartica Allamanda (Apocynaceae) Yellow Quick growing climber with shining foliage and bell shaped flowers
Antigonon leptopus Coral vine
Rose-pink Deciduous quick growing climber, good for cascading effect
Aristolochia elegans Duck flower
Yellow-green Deciduous quick growing climber, various colours good for trellis and cascading
Artabotrys uncinatus Hari champa
Yellow Evergreen heavy climber with shining foliage
Asparagus cetaceus / plumosus Asparagus
----- Evergreen light climber good for shady areas and as cut green
Banisteria laevifolia (Malpighiaceae) Yellow Evergreen heavy climber with olive-green foliage
Bauhinia vahlii Maljhan, Climbing
Creamy-white Large, evergreen climber / rambler, good for growing in bauhinia foot hills in drought prone areas.
Beaumontia grandiflora Nepal Trumpet creeper (Apocynaceae) White Evergreen quick growing heavy climber with shining coarse textured foliage, good for training over deciduous trees.
Bignonia purpurea (Apocynaceae) Mauve-purple Evergreen light climber with scented flowers
Bignonia unguis-cati Cat’s claw
Yellow Evergreen light climber ability to climb up ware walls and pillars with emerging foliage purple-red. Good for making topiary
Bougainvillea species & hybrids Bougainvillea
All colours Evergreen climber, valued for bracts and foliage
Campsis grandiflora Trumpet flower
Orange-red Deciduous climber ability to climb on walls, with glossy dark green foliage
Campsis radicans (Bignoniaceae) Orange-red Deciduous heavy climber ability to climb ware walls.
Chonemorpha macrophylla (Apocynaceae) Creamy-white Large climber with scented flowers and large coarse foliage, suitable for training over pergolas or trees
Cissus discolor (Vitaceae) ----- Deciduous climber with red-purple autumn colour
Clematis paniculta Clematis (Ranunculaceae) White Deciduous heavy climber, dark green foliage and fragrant flowers
Clerodendron splendens Clerodendron (Verbenaceae) Red Large evergreen climber with coarse textured dark green foliage making contrast with flowers
Clerodendrum thompsonae Bleeding heart (Verbenaceae) Red flowers with white calyx Light evergreen climber
Clitorea ternatea Mussel shell (Papilionaceae) Deep blue, white Light climber also behaves as annual
Cobaea scandens (Polemoniaceae) White, purple Light climber also behaves as annual
Ficus repens Indian ivy (Moraceae) - Ever green climber, prefers semi-shady situation, planted for its foliage
Hiptage benghalensis Madhvi lata (Malpighiaceae) Creamish white Produces scandent branches like rambler
Jasminum grandiflorum Chameli (Oleaceae) White fragrant flowers Highly fragrant flowers, suitable for trellis, against wall and near stinky places
Jasminum officinale Spanish jasmine (Oleaceae) White fragrant flowers Highly suitable for training against
Jasminum humile Pili chameli (Oleaceae) Single and semi double  flowers Ideal for training against wall and trellis
Lonicera Japonica Japanese honey suckle (Caprifoliaceae) White changing to yellow Evergreen and quick growing climber
Passiflora laurifolia Phoolghari (Passifloraceae) Purple Heavy climber
Petrea  volubilis Purple Wreath (Verbenaceae) Blue For training against walls or to be planted in shrubbery
Pyrostegia venusta Golden shower (Bignoniaceae) Rich orange colour Suitable for planting in south side against walls, pergola, trellis, boundary wall, screening and to cover large area
Porana panniculata Bridal bouquet (Convolvulaceae) - Suitable for training against walls, pergola and trellis
Solanum seaforthianum Blue potato creeper (Solanaceae) Purple blue flowers Highly suitable for planting against wall
Thunbergia grandiflora Sky flower (Acanthaceae) Blue colour Vigorous growing climber that can cover larger area in short time.
Quisqualis indica Rangoon creeper (Combretaceae) At first white, later on change to pink and red Highly suited against walls, on trellis, pergola, trees etc.
Vernonia elaegnifolia (Compositae) - More suitable for creating weeping effect on porch, balcony, boundary wall, against pillars, walls and for screening purpose



These are group of plants which have special structures to store water in thick fleshy leaves or stems.  Their leaves are fleshy with plenty of water-holding tissues, often reduced in size, covered with a thick epidermis with only a few stomata and are often coated with a whitish or blue wax or wooly hairs.

They thrive best in sunny situations and are light loving.  They need little care except when actively growing.  All the cacti are succulents on account of storing water but all the succulents are not cacti.  There is a clear cut distinction between both.  Cactus is characterized by the presence of areoles sp., which often looks like woolly cushions carrying spines, hairs and the flowers arise from or near the areoles.  The spines in cactus are modified leaves which provide shade against scorching sun and help in conservation of moisture besides protecting against birds and beasts.

All the cacti are succulents on account of slowing water but all the succulents are not cacti. The cacti are one type of succulents which are exclusively belonging to the family ‘Cactaceae’. They are perennials, bearing spine cushions called ‘aeroles’. Most of the cacti do not have leaves but the succulents have leaves. The cacti usually bloom annually and are beautiful and large.

Like any other plant, cacti can be raised from seeds but the process is very slow. Hence, the common practice is to grow them through vegetative buds. The container for cacti are filled with about 10 cm of gravel and above that a thin layer of sand is spread to provide drainage. The best soil mixture consists of sandy loam, little cowdung manure and some broken bricks. Watering by sprinkling should be done once or twice in a week. Repotting is necessary with fresh soil once in two or three years, usually in the same containers, since the plants grow very slowly.

Cactus and succulents are very popular amongst gardeners, amateurs and hobbyists who are used to adorn sunny situations of gardens, houses, window sides and rock gardens. 


Sl. No. Common Name Remarks
1. Adenium obesum Handsome plant with succulent swollen stem at base, shrub growing upto 1-2m, very large showy funnel shaped – whit e pink to crimson coloured flowers during dry months
2. Agave americana Evergreen massive growing plant with short stem and leaves in a close rosette.  Leaves are stiff, leathery and fibrous.
3. Aloe Plants are evergreen with soft, succulent thick leaves, often prickly or spiny resembling the Agaves.  Some species have variegated foliage and are suited for pot - culture.
4. Bryophyllum It is an erect growing succulent herb with thick fleshy simple leaves.  It is good pot-plant and could be easily propagated by leaves or leaf cuttings.
5. Echeverias Cotyledon or Oyster plant.  They are small succulent herbaceous perennials with dense rosettes of small leaves. Useful for growing in higher elevation.  Useful for edging flower beds or in carpet beds in the hills.  Propagated from suckers and also by leaves. 
6. Furcraea watsoniana Ornamental foliage plants resembling agave; the variegated spices are very attractive. Leaves are variegated, yellowish white, white and green, measuring 1 -1/2m long. Bears innumerable bulbils from which this species is propagated.  
7. Gasteria Aloe- like small evergreen succulent plants with fleshy, thick tongue shaped leaves which are green, spotted with or purple. Propagated by offsets and leaf cuttings.
8. Kalanchoe sp. Dwarf succulent plant resembling bryophyllum with thick fleshy leaves from which they are propagated. Flowers showy, provided in terminal clusters.
9. Pedilanthus sp. Often used as a hedge border plant, produce variegated leaves.
10. Sansevieria zeylanica Produces erect strap-shaped leaf, 0.25 to 1.0 m long, which is green striped with grey bands. Other species having garden importance are S. cylindrica which produce green cylindrical leaves and S. trifasciata which develops like rosette, with spirally arranged leaves around the stem.


Sl. No. Common Name Remarks
1. Cephalocereus Small columnar forms and the most distinguishing feature is the mass of hair from the aerole which looks like a thick bunch of wool, depending on the species, either the growing point is fully covered with the wooly hairs or the body also, hence popularly called ‘Old man cactus’
2. Cereus They are curious looking, long stemmed, vigorous growing, thorny, hardy plants.  They are leafless climbers can reach the top of tall trees.  They bloom during night and flowers are large, white and scented. They can be used as rootstock for Epiphyllum and phyllocactus.
3. Echinocactus Popularly known as ‘Barel cacti’ or Hedge Hog Cactus.  Small; nonbranching type; Ovoid or globes succulent, prickly plant.  They resemble a ribbed melon of the size of a cricket ball with star-like arrangement of thorns along the ribs.  Golden Barrel is another variety with large ribbed green ball armed with straight golden yellow spines.
4. Echinocereus Low growing plants forming groups of clusters.  They can be grown in small pots and they produce large flowers.
5. Echinopsis Hedge – Hog Cactus. Small spiny succulent.  They produce detachable offsets.  Suitable for growing in small pots for their increasing flowers. Propagated by offsets.
6. Epiphyllum Christmas Cactus or Crab Cactus.  Plants with flattened succulent stems. The plants are spineless and bear usually large attractive flowers.  Propagated by cuttings and can be used as rootstock.
7. Euphorbia Stems are thorny, leaves small. Stem and leaves discharge poisonous milky juice when punctured.  Propagated by cutting.
8. Haworthia Small plants with or without a short stem and leaves in rosettes or closely overlapping or arranged in several rows.  Easily propagated by offsets. 
9. Mammimillaria Popularly called as ‘Nipple cactus or Elephant’s Tooth cactus’. Dwarf plants with leafless cylindrical or globular stems bearing over their surface, small tubercles, some what resembling the teats of animals and each tubercle being crowned by a rosette of hairy spines.  Propagated by offsets. 


succulent garden 1
Establishing succulent garden in pot – step 1

succulent garden 2
Establishing succulent garden in pot – step 2

succulent garden 3
Establishing succulent garden in pot – step 3
succulent garden 4
Establishing succulent garden in pot – step 4



The House Plants, or Indoor Plants, have become a necessity in the homes of the affluent West, but even in some affluent Indian homes these types of plant are also now finding a prominent place. Indoor plants are used to beautify the areas inside the house. It is less costly to decorate the interior of a room with live plants compared to flowers, which are becoming costlier day by day and besides they are to be replaced frequently. On the other hand, with little care, a well-chosen house plant will continue to decorate a room for a period of time. The initial investment may be comparatively high but it proves economical in the long run.

Though the fashion of growing house plants became universally popular during the past three or four decades, definitely it is not a new art. In the ancient civilizations of Egypt, India, and Rome it was not unusual to bring pot-grown or tub-grown plants inside a room for the purpose of decoration. In Europe, particularly in Britain, during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries it was a common practice for the well-to-do people to grow exotic house plants for interior decoration.

The indoor plants can be placed in the following areas.
1. Open zone: This is available in roof terraces. This zone is very warm especially during  summer in inland plains. Plants like Agave and cacti, which can tolerate reflected heat, can be selected for the above purpose.
2. Shade of a tree in front of a house: Such places near the eastern side of the building may be considered for growing certain house plants which can easily come up under shade. Most of the foliage plants like Crotons, Eranthemum, Dracaena, Asparagus are preferred as potted plants in the area.
3. Varandah of a house: This area normally gets only diffused light and the air environment is also good. The plants best suited for growing in verandahs are palms such as Livistonia, Areca lutescens, ferns and Begonias etc.
4. Living room, drawing room etc: In these places, we can keep the plants either near the window or away from it. Near a window plants with brighter foliage and occasionally herbaceous flowering plants are preferred, while plants with drooping foliage like Zebrina, Sedum, Mesembranthemum are preferred in the former cases.

Selection of House Plants
The plants which are generally grown in the houses are of two kinds. In the first cate­gory are included what we commonly call "the flowering plants" such as African violets, azaleas, geraniums, etc., which are spectacular in appearance by virtue of their colourful flowers. But once the flowering is over, these plants have very little use inside a room and hence their usefulness as house plants is only for a limited period. To the other cate­gory belong plants which provide permanent display with their graceful foliage and some­times with their architectural or unusual form (e.g. bonsai).         

One point has to be taken into account while choosing the house plants. Even though a room may appear to be well1it to our eyes, the available light may not be enough for proper growth and development of the plant. Hence, the majority of the house plants should have the capacity to tolerate shade of varying intensity. One more quality impor­t to any house plant is that it should remain evergreen to retain its permanent decorative character, with possible exceptions of bonsai which are quite attractive even without foliage because of the attractive outline of the tree. Though green leaves can also be attractive, especially if the shape is unusual or interesting (e.g., Monstera deliciosa), leaves with some colour other than green are considered to be more attractive. In some plants the leaves are naturally-coloured as in Gynura aurantiaca, Caladiums etc., while in others coloured forms of the natural green leaved types are available as in Peperomia magnoliaefolia variegata, Ficus radicans variegata and others. Another quality a house plant is expected to have is compactness of its growth habit as space becomes a limiting factor in any house in a congested city.
Now it is possible to describe in a nutshell the qualities expected of an ideal house plant. A house plant should be compact in growth habit, evergreen in nature and should have some amount of shade around its growing environments. In addition, the leaves should be attractive by virtue of their shape or colour. Though the emphasis should be permanence of attraction, handsome flowers produced by house plants should be regarded as a valuable trait. But the combination of good foliage and flowers is unfortunately very rare.

Before procuring a house plant one has to consider many points. The first consi­deration is that under what condition a plant has to grow, i.e., whether there is sufficient light or the humidity is adequate or the temperature is favourable. Secondly, due thought to be given as for what purpose the plant is needed. For example, if it is for deco­ration of a small table, the plant should be compact and bushy in nature. Another impo­rtant point is the experience of the grower in handling a house plants gain, a busy man who cannot spend much time in the care of the plants. A house plant grown in the humid and warm atmosphere of a green house should be hardened off before selling to a customer. It goes without saying that a grower should select a plant with firm and healthy looking foliage and which is also free ill disease and insect pests. Besides the ornamental foliage and flowering plants, cacti and succulents, palms, ferns and some bulbous plants can also be grown inside a house. A miniature Water­, Nymphaea x pygmaea helvola can also be grown indoors in a bowl of at least 30 cm.

Putting the plants in various-shaped plant stands also improves the look of display. Plant stands may be made to accommodate only one plant or it may be branching to hold several pots together. These are generally made of mild steel rods or plates with a heavy base and having a ring to hold the pot. The branching types generally have several protrud­ing hands from the main support at the end of which there wi1l be rings to hold the pots. Plants kept in plant stands should be watered just enough so that there is no drip, or the pots are watered outside and the excess of water is allowed to drain off after which the pots are put back in the stand. Even after these precautions it is most likely that the pots may drip.   

There are some other methods of displaying house plants. A live screen can be created in a window by growing light indoor creepers such as different Hedera helix, Scindapsus aureus, the "golden pothos" (money plant) and others. The dining space in a drawing or living-room can be separated by growing a screen of creepers in between or placing a vertical garden. Plants grown in bowls or metal hanging baskets can be fixed on the walls by using brackets which will bring a relief to an otherwise empty expanse of a wall. However, one should be cautioned not to overdo the practice of decorating with house plants.

Scindapsus aureus

Some House Plants
For the sake of convenience, the house plants are classified into severa1 groups. The different groups are mentioned below and some important house plants belonging to each group are listed below.

Climbing and Trailing Foliage Plant
The climbing and trailing plants wi1l need support for growing. For light creepers or trail­ers split-bamboo cane support driven deep into the compost will be enough. The creeper or trailer should be tied to the cane taking care that the knot round the stem is loose enough for the future growth of the plant. A trellis can be made by driving into the soil three or more canes at slightly inclined angle across the centre of the pot. Then crossbars made of split­ bamboo cane are tied across these canes with thin wires at intervals of 10 cm. For making a screen, thin chicken wire-mesh may be used supported on wooden frame. Moss sticks, also called totem poles, are made by tying sphagnum moss all round and along the wire length of a thick cane and supporting against it generally creepers such as Monstera deliciosa, Philodendron scandens, money plant, and also Hedera helix having aerial roots.


The following are examples of few house plants belonging to this group.
(a) Climber: Ficus pumila, Ficus radicans variegata is a beautiful variegated creeper suitable for hanging baskets. The creamy-white variegation starts from the margins, Asparagus plumosus, A. sprengeri, Hedera helix, Philodendron elegans, P. laciniatum, P. melanochrysum, Scindapsus aureus ('Pothos"), S. aureus 'Marble Queen", and S. aureus "Tricolour", and Syngonium podophyllum

Asparagus sprengeri

(b) Trailers: The important plants in this group are: Chlorophytum comosum variega­tum, Fittonia verschaffeltii, Tradescantia jluminensis, T. jluminensis variegate and Zebrina pendula

Bushy and Upright Foliage plants
This group of plants possesses beautiful foliage and is suitable for display in arrangements. Some important plants belonging to this group are mentioned below.
Aglaonema commutatum, Aralia elegantissima (Syn. Dizygotheca elegantissima), Araucaria excelsa, Begonia 'Rex', Brassaia actinophylla, Caladium in different colours, Cordyline terminalis, Cryptanthus zonatus, Cyperus alternifolius, C. alternifolius variega­ta, Dracaena godseffiana, D. sanderiana, Fatsia japonica, Fittonia verschaffeltii,  Maranta leuconeura, Monstera deliciosa, , Peperomia caperata Philodendron bipinnatifidum, P. 'Burgundy'.

Dracaena godseffiana

Flowering house plants
These plants have attractive foliage which remains on the plant on the plant and they bear attractive flowers.
 Begonia glaucophylla, B. glabra, Passiiflora caerulea, Aphelandra squarrosa, Begonia maculata, B. manicata

(a) Annual bulbs:Most of the annual bulbs recommended for indoor culture are suitable only for temperate regions. In the plains, where the weather is cool enough, one may try some of these but the success will not be satisfactory. The bulbs recommended are Daffodils (Narcissus), Crocus, Hyacinths, and Tulips.

(b) Permanent bulbs: Only Amaryllis (Hippeastrum) grows well indoors year after year. These can be grown in the tropics also.

Ferns and Palms   
(a) Suitable Ferns: Adiantum, Asplenium nidus, Nephrolepsis exaltata, and Pteris cretica, Selaginella in different species, (though not ferns) can aIso be grown.
(b) Suitable Palms: Chamaerops humilis, Cycas revoluta (not palm but similar looking).

Cycas revoluta

Care of indoor plants
1. Repotting: The house plants soon fill the pots with its roots and often need a larger pot for satisfactory continuing its growth. It is then shifted to a pot a little larger on size with its root and soil intact. This process is known as “repotting”. Plant should never be repotted when the soil is in dry state. In this condition, they should be watered some time before potting is commenced, so that the surplus water will have to drain away. Soil used for potting should be sufficiently moist to hold together when pressed in the hand, but not wet.
2. Watering: Pot plants require to be watered much more carefully than those growing in the ground. Applying too little or too much of water is undesirable. When the leaves droop it is a sign that the plant is either in need of water or suffering from water stagnation at the root. Always use soft water for watering the potted plants.
3. Syringing: It refers to the operation of spraying the plant surfaces through a fine stringe nose. It is essential to the health of plants growing under cover where the natural rain does not reach them.  Syringing creates a moist atmosphere, cleans the leaves and thus assist in promoting their functions.
4. All plants growing in a verandah should be frequently turned round in their position so as to equalize the effect of the light otherwise their growth will be top sided.
5. Too much light is just as detrimental as too little and the majority of indoor plants should not be placed in full sun. Sun scorch or leaf burn will soon make them very unattractive. Requirement of light vary with the individual plants. Most flowering plants require considerable light to bloom, while most foliage plants need diffused light. The only exception to this rule is plants that have variegated leaves. When a variegated plant os placed in a dark corner, the few green cells present in the leaves cannot manufacture enough food to maintain a healthy growing condition. Flowering plants require more sunlight for profuse flowering and hence they can be better located near the windows.
6. The humidity of air in the house or room is very low. Many house plants require a higher humidity than is normally present. It is often difficult to provide the necessary humidity in the room. The humidity around the plants can be increased by the following ways.
a. Use trays of pebbles in which water is poured to just below the tops of the pebbles. Place the pots on the pebbles, being certain that the bottoms are not sitting in the water.
b. Another method is that the single plant may be top-dressed with sphagnum moss and the moss kept nicely damp.


Ornamental palms
Palms are a special group of plants used extensively in landscape gardening, due to their beautiful trunk, leaf colour, shapes, plant structure and growth habits. Palms include about 200 genera and three thousand species. Their roots, trunks (stems), fronds (leaves), flowers and fruits are different and distinct in appearance and structure from others of the plant kingdom. Based on the trunk and its different manifestation, palms can be divided in to four groups viz.,
1. Solitary palms- single erect trunk (eg. Cocos, Phoenix, Elaseis)
2. Clumping plams- multiple trunks arising from at or just below the ground level (eg. Areca lustescens, Raphis)
3. Branching plams- branching can occur above ground (eg. Hyphaene indica) or below ground (eg. Nipa fruticans)
4. Trunkless palm- have very much reduced trunk called acaulescent (eg. Phoenix acaulis)

The leaves of the palms called ‘fronds’ vary in form. They may be grouped into ‘fan leaved type’ and ‘pinnate leaved type’ palms.

Use of palms in landscape garden
 1. Palms are well suited as single specimens in lawn (eg. Areca triandra)
 2. Palms are excellent specimens for avenue planting in the gardens (eg. Roystonea regia)
 3. They are also suitable for decoration of conservatories, verandahs, stair-cases, for indoor decorations as potted plants.

Hints to grow palms
1. Palms can be propagated from seeds or division of clumps (eg. Raphis)
2. Palm seeds are to be harvested at fully ripe stage and are to be immediately sown in raised beds having more proportion of sand.
3. Depending upon the species, the seeds start geminating from 3 months even continue upto 2 years in certain cases.
4. The seedlings may be lifted at first pair of leaf stage and potted off simply in small pots.
5. Palms generally refer pot bound condition and thrive even in undersized pots.
6. Repotting to the next large sized pots may be done at the stage when the roots increase and fill the pots fully, almost forcing the pots to open or crack.
7. Liquid manuring with oil cakes and Ammonium sulphate may be given to the palms once in fifteen days.
8. Regular watering especially on alternate days is essential for the palms grown in the pots.
9. Potted palms intended for keeping indoors should be acclimatized sufficiently before keeping them indoors, so that they retain their fresh appearance and lusture.

Some attractive palms for the garden
1. Areca triandra: an elegant single trunked palm
2. Caryota urens: Toddy palm, produces a long drooping flower spike
3. Hyphaene indica: Indian doum palm – unique- branching habit.
4. Livistona decipiens: Solitary, fan shaped leaves with stout thorns on their leaves.
5. Pritchardia pacifica: It has ornamental large broad flabellate plaited leaves, often 10m, broad                
6. Raphis excelsa: Dwarf-rattan like palms, slender stem and fan shaped leaves, produce large number of suckers.

Bulbous plants
The term, ‘bulbous plants’ refers to all seasonal plants with underground modified stems containing stored food for the development of the seasonal aerial shoots of stems, leaves and flowers. the modified stems include bulbs, tubers, corms, rhizomes etc. Bulbous plants are grown for their flowers or foliage or both. There are a number of them, varying in habit of growth, form, colour etc. Bulbous plants are characterized by three stages in their growth viz., the growing, the blooming and the resting periods. Generally, the bulbous plants after bloom enter into rest period. At this time, the bulbs are taken out and placed them in moist sand. After 3-4 months, the dormant buds swell and push out the shoots. When sufficient growth is made, the bulbs may be planted. All bulbous plants generally thrive at higher elevations, there are some kinds which do not thrive and bloom at medium elevations and many do not perform well at low elevations.


Sl. No. Common Name Botanical name & Family Description
1. Blue African lily Agapanthus companulatus
F: Liliaceae
Produces umbel from March to June, containing 10 – 30 blue flowers with funnel shaped, suitable of 1000 – 2000m above MSL, propagated by offsets.
2.  Cannas Canna indica              Scitaminae Produces large trusses of flowers of larger size, based on height, classified as dwarfs, medium and tall.
3. Crinum lily Crinum sp           Amaryllidaceae Bears usually white or red tinted flowers, mostly in summer.
4. Gladiolus Gladiolus sp         Iridaceae A popular cut flower, producing single or double spikes, propagated through corms or seeds
5. Day lily Hemerocallis            Liliaceae They bear single or double large and attractive flowers on tall scapes
6. The garden amaryllis or Trumpet lily Hippeastrum               F: Amaryllidaceae Spectacular flowers, having various shades of bright colour
7. Dahlia Dahlia sp.             Compositae Most gorgeously coloured, free blooming, available in all colours except blue.
8. Red-Hot poker Kniphofia                Liliaceae A handsome plant, bearing immense spikes, closely covered with brilliantly coloured tubular flowers in orange, rose, salmon scarlet shades.

1. http://hflp.sdstate.edu/ho311/outdoor_images/Antirrhinum%20majus%20Butterfly%20flowers%20s.jpg
2. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/images/hires/starr_070402_6342_celosia_sp.jpg
3. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Celosia_argentea_cristata01ies.jpg
4. http://www.millernursery.com/image/plantPicFiles/perennialPics/gaillardiaFanfairS.jpg
5. http://botany.cs.tamu.edu/FLORA/dcs420/mi04/mi04061.jpg
6. http://www.botanypictures.com/plantimages/helichrysum%20X%20hybride%2001.jpg
7. http://www.wsu.edu/~lohr/wcl/HelichrysumBracteatumFlwrs.jpg
8. http://gstuff.co.nz/shop/garden/images/lathyrus_bicolour.jpg
9. www.mooseyscountrygarden.com/succulents/pink-...
10. http://iwetmyplants.com/category/succulents/



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