Farm Implements

Tillage Implements

a. Disc Plough

Special Features
It is used for primary tillage and is especially useful in hard and dry, trashy, stony or stumpy land conditions and in soils where scouring is a major problem

Number of furrows : 2-4
Disc size               : 600-800 mm
Working depth      : up to300 mm
Power requirement : 25-50 hp, tractor
Weight                  : 236-376 kg

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b. Cultivator

Special Features
It is used for seed bed preparation both in dry and wet soils. It is also used for interculture purpose and puddling purposes

Type                      : Tractor mounted
Source of power      : 35 hp, tractor
Working depth         : 140-170 mm
Capacity                 : 0.35-0.5 ha
Type of shovels       : Reversible shoe type
Weight                   : 120-130 kg  

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c. Rotavator

Special Features

It is used in dry as well as wet land cultivation


Type                             : Tractor mounted
Power soruce                 : 35 or above hp, tractor
Working width                : 1000-2000 mm
Shape of blade               : L- shape
Revoultion of rotor shaft  : 210-237 rpm
Weight                           : 280-415 kg

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d.Mould Board Plough

Special Features
Suitable for primary tillage in canal irrigated or heavy rain areas where too much weeds grow.Completely invert and pulverize the soil, uproot all weeds, trash and crop residues and bury them under the soil
1. Model MT-02 (M)
2. Max. Depth 22 cms
3. Working width 85 cms
4. Weight 225 kg
5. Tractor Compatibility 35 to 55 HP

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Sowing Implements

a.Improved Broad Bed Former cum Seeder

Special Features
  • Suitable for sowing groundnut, Bengal gram, maize, millets and pulses in raised beds
  • Coverage   : 3.2  ha/day
  • Saving in cost : 57%
  • Saving in labour and time  :  95% 

Overall dimension            : 2020 x 2050 x 1100 mm
Weight                            : 370 kg
No. of furrows                 : 2
Row and hill spacing        : Adjustable
Cost of the unit                : Rs. 27000/-

General information:

The implement will form broad beds separated by furrows and simultaneously undertake sowing in rows on the bed formed.  The unit can be hitched to the 3 point linkage of tractor.  This unit consists of a sheet metal float which forms the broad beds separated by furrows at an interval of 160 cm.  Over the sheet metal frame, seed hoppers and cup feed seed metering mechanism are provided.  The drive for the seed metering device is taken from a projecting spoke type ground wheel which trails behind the furrow openers, on the bed. The furrow openers are made of cultivator shovels provided with wings. The depth of furrow opener can be adjusted with respect to bed surface.

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Special Features
Uniform distribution of seeds.

Type                      : Manually operated
Power requirement : One labour
Overall dimensions  : 360  x 510  x 420 mm
Weight                   : 3.6Kg
Capacity                 : 4 ha/day
Cost of the unit       : Rs.3000/- 

General Information:
The centrifugal type unit that is hung in front of the operator is used to broadcast seeds and granular fertilizers by rotating the handle.  The material is put in the hopper in batches of 3 to 5 kg and the operator has to walk while rotating the handle. The material is spread over a 3.5 to 10 m width.

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c.Tractor drawn
Air Assisted Seed Drill

Special Features
  • To drill small seeded crops like, sesame, ragi, maize
  • Cost of operation : Rs. 150/ha
  • Saving Cost : 55%
  • Saving in time : 92%

Type                             : Tractor mounted
Power Requirement        : 35 – 45 hp tractor (PTO operated)
Capacity                        : 5 ha per day
Cost of the Unit              : Rs 35,000/-

General Information:
The unit consists of an air blower and drive, seed hopper and feeding device, seed distributor head, seed tubes, furrow opener ground wheel and furrow closer. The above components mounted on a 9 tyne cultivator. Blower is used to blow air through a vertical distributor tube to the distributor head. Seed is metered by the ground wheel into the air stream in controlled manner. The stream of seed is distributed to the 9 furrow openers by the distributor head. This ensures uniform drilling of fine seeds.  

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d.Birsa Animal Drawn Seed Drill

Special Features
  • It is suitable for sowing paddy, ragi, wheat, linseed, gram, safflower and other small sized seeds.
  • It saves 56% labour and operating time and 25% on cost of operation
  • It also results in 14 to 27% increase in yield

Type                               : Bullock drawn
Dimensions (mm)             : 850 x 440x 170
Cost of the implement       : Rs. 650/-
Capacity                           : 0.03ha per hour
Power source                   : A pair of bullocks
Developed by                   : BAU, Ranchi in 1979-82

General Information:
In this machine, seeds are dropped by a rubber agitator and silt hole while the fertilizer is dropped manually using the funnel provided for that purpose. Only the ground wheel drives the agitator for the seeds and a small ridger type furrow opener is used to reduce the draft on the animal.

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e.Tractor Mounted Seed Drill

Special Features
  • It is suitable for sowing of small seed such as rapeseed, mustard and millets.
  • It results in 20-25 per cent increase in yield

Type                           : Tractor drawn
Cost                            : Rs.10,000/-
Cost of operation          : Rs. 200 per hectare
Filed capacity               : 0.18 per hectare
Field efficiency              : 62%
Labour requirement      : 3 man per hectare
Developed by               : GBPUAT, Pantnagar in 1988-92     

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f.Bullock drawn harrower

Special Features
  • It is used for inter-cultivation operation by attaching dug foot for removing weed from standing crop.
  •  Small wheel of bullock drawn harrower do not crush the crop during inter-cultivation operation.
  • Two drives are attached near operator’s seat, which help to adjust the depth in the soil.

Type                        : Bullock drawn
Field efficiency          :7.7 hours
Cost of the harrow     : Rs.1500/-

General Information:
Small harrows are suitable for use with animal power. They can be moved in the inter-row spaces and used for removing the weeds effectively. The sweeps are blades that move horizontally under the soil and the shallow rooted weeds are easily pulled out. The sweep used with the central line has horizontal wings extending on both the sides and the sweeps used with the side lines have the wing on the right or left away from the crop rows.

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Post Havest Implements

a.Improved Sickles of Different Designs

Special Features
  • It is a harvesting tool used for the harvesting of vegetables, cereal and millet crops and cutting  of the grass and other vegetable matters

Type                       : Hand operated
Blade thickness        : 1.5 – 4, tapered to the cutting edge
Weight                    : 150 – 400 g

General information:
It consists of curved steel edged blade fixed to the wooden handled the cutting edge may be plain or serrated depending upon the design. The curvature of the blade differs widely in plain edged and serrated sickles. The blade is fabricated from medium carbon or high carbon steel and hardened to resist wear. The blade has a knife section and  thickness reduces towards the cutting edge. The tang of the blade is inserted in to the wooden handle for joining the blade to the handle. The wooden handle is either straight or bent at the end.

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b.Multi Crop Thresher (TNAU, Coimbatore)

Special Features
  • It is suitable for threshing paddy, ragi, jowar, maize, sunflower, wheat etc.
  • Robust construction
  • 50% extra output then other threshers
  • High quality material like steel, bearings, pulleys, V-belts etc.
  • More efficiency resulting in better performance in less fuel consumption

Dimension                  : 3420x2430x2330
Power requirement      : 35, Tractor or 20 Electric motor
Capacity (kg/h)           : 600-1000

General information:
The thresher consists of threshing cylinder, oscillating box, straw walker, and winnowing and cleaning attachment. The rasp-bar cylinder is made of cast iron rings, sheet metal and toothed racks and is fitted on the main shaft running on two numbers of heavy pedal bearings. Various pulleys of different sizes are fitted on this shaft to transmit power to winnowing and fan attachment. Adjustments for cylinder and blower speeds and concave clearance are provided to make the machine suitable for various crops.

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c.SBI Grain Thresher

  • This mobile thresher is suitable for most grain types, including rice, wheat, maize, sunflower, sorghum and millet.
  • The threshing unit primarily comprises of a threshing drum, winnower and straw walkers.
  • This assembly is mounted on a two wheeled trailer with pneumatic tyres.
  • A drawbar with a yoke is provided for transportation by a pair of bullocks or the thresher can be drawn by a tractor.
  • An electric motor or small engine is required to power the machine.

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d.Grain winnower

Special Features
  • To winnow and clean all grains after threshing
  • It is a continuous type.
  • It is suitable for other grains also.
  • The efficiency of the unit is 97%

Dimension                            : 2130 x 600 x 1320
Capacity                               : 500 - 750  kg/h
Power required                     : 1 hp electric motor
Cost of the unit                     : Rs.30, 000/-
Cost of operation (approx)     : Rs. 25/h

General Information                  
This machine winnows and cleans the paddy and other grains after threshing. It consists of a feed hopper to hold the grain for cleaning. It discharges the grain over a scalper and removes bigger size impurities.  A blower provided at the bottom passes  air against the grain falling through the scalper which separates the straw, chaff and other impurities.  The dust, chaff and straw are collected separately and cleaned paddy is taken out through another outlet near the bottom of the unit.

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f.Seed Grader- Screen

Special Features
  • It is used for cleaning and grading of seeds of all crops

Capacity                 : 1.5-2 tonne/ha
Dimension              : 3060x2500x2470
Electric motor         : 5.6 KW
Cost                       : Rs. 12,500/-

General Information:

  • The seed grader has built-in cyclone dust collectors, various air regulations arrangement, adjustable feeding level and feed control, interchangeable screens and double air aspiration system, pneumatic feedings, dynamically balanced double aspirator fans, air chamber and sieve deck assembly.
  • All these units are mounted on a sturdy machine frame. Before falling on top screen, grains are subjected to primary aspiration, which drains off chaff, straw, dust, deceased grains etc.
  • Material is then passed through two sieve layers for separation. After passing through screen cleaned/graded material again passes through air sifter and aspiration where remaining light particles are sucked off by a strong upward draught of air. Final product and impurities are collected separately through discharge chutes.

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g.Seed Grader – Screen with Indented Cylinder

Special Features
  • It is used for cleaning and grading of seeds of all crops.

Dimension                 : 3160 x 1460 x 2560
Capacity (t/h)             : 2
Electric motor (kW)     : 7.1

General Information:

  • It consists of feed hopper with feed roller and feed control gate, set of sieves, dynamically balanced aspirator fan, step less variable air controls, air chamber, sieve deck assembly, spouts, and indented cylinder grader. All these are mounted on a sturdy steel frame.
  • Seeds/Grains are fed into a feed hopper where they are evenly distributed by a feed roller and drop through a controlled gate on the top sieve. Before falling on top screen grains are subjected to primary aspiration, which drains off chaff, straw, dust, deceased grains etc.
  • Material is then passed through two sieve layers for separation according to width and thickness. After passing through screens, cleaned/graded material again passes through air sifter and aspiration where remaining light particles are sucked off by a strong upward draught of air.
  •  After size grading, material passes through indented cylinder grader for removing impurities based on length. Final product and impurities are collected separately through discharge chutes.

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g.Mini Millet Mill

Special Features
  • It is suitable for soybean, red gram, black gram, green gram and cereals like rice, sorghum, ragi, wheat etc.
  • The mini millet mill consists of a feed hopper at the top of the unit with a feed regulating mechanism.
  • "Mini millet mill" consists of a water mixer, a plate grinder, and various sifter attachments.
  • It is a versatile device in which debranning and sizing the endosperm (into either flour or semolina) take place in a single operation.

Capacity                           : 30-40 Kg per hectare
Power required (hp)
Millet mill                           : 0.5
Flour mill                          : 1.5

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h.Food extruder

Special Features
  • To produce value added products from millets.
  • Finds industrial application for finger millet
  • Other millets can also be extruded.
  • For the extrusion cooking of finger millet (ragi) flours, a single screw laboratory model extruder is required.
  •  The flour is conditioned to moisture content for about 22% (wb), one hour prior to the extrusion.  During conditioning, cassava flour to a level of 20% is added to increase the expansion, crispiness and acceptability. 
  • Extrusion is done at barrel temperature and screw speed 115ºC and 225 rpm, respectively.  

Overall dimension      : 960 x 750 x 600 mm
Capacity                    : 10-20 kg/h
Power required         : 7.5 hp electric motor
Cost of the unit          : Rs.75,000/-
Cost of operation       : Rs.15 per kg

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